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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
13.01.2017 – 20.02.2017
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2017
Report Date:
2017

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.13/14 (Mutagenicity - Reverse Mutation Test Using Bacteria)
Version / remarks:
Council Regulation (EC) No.440/2008. Published in O.J. L 142, 2008
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
impurity
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Details on test material:
Batch No.: 7031/2007Stability/Expiration: Feb 2018Storage: The test substance should be stored in dry room in dark in supplied container at the room temperature.

Method

Target gene:
gene for histidine or tryptophan synthesis
Species / strainopen allclose all
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
supernatant of rat liver and a mixture of cofactors
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
50, 150, 500, 1500, 5000 μgSelection of doses/toxicity: The test substance was dissolved in water for injection till the maximum recommended concentration 5000 μg per 0.1 mL. For toxicity experiment the highest concentration was diluted to the other 5 concentrations in 3 digit places interval (10-5000 μg per plate). Although no particles could be observed in higher concentrations due to dark colour of solutions, no particles were observable in top agar and Petri dishes.
Vehicle / solvent:
Water for injection, Ardeapharma, Lot. No.: 1508310536, exp. 08/2017- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: solubility of the substance
Controlsopen allclose all
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
negative controls - 0.1 mL of water for inj.
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
sodium azide
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine
Remarks:
(NPD)
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminofluorene
Remarks:
(2-AF)
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene
Remarks:
(2-AA)
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
Remarks:
(MNNG)
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate
Remarks:
(9-AAc)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
The bacterial tester strains Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 (CCM 3814, lot. No. 2101200916917),TA 98 (CCM 3811, lot No. 01022001220053), TA 100 (CCM 3812, lot No. 0102201220054) and TA 1537 (CCM 3815, lot No. 2101200916918) as well as Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA (CCM 4751, lot No. 2104200512732),were obtained from Czech Collection of Microorganisms (CCM) of Masaryk University, Brno.Strains TA 98 and TA 1537 detect frame shift mutations, strains TA 100 and TA 1535 serve to detection of base-pair substitution mutations, and strain E.coli WP2uvrA detects cross-linking mutagensMETHOD OF APPLICATION: in medium; in agar (plate incorporation)NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: two seriesDETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY- Method: relative total growth
Evaluation criteria:
The main criterion for evaluation of results was modified two-fold increase rule, which is compatible with the application of statistical methods (see below). After this rule the result is positive, if a reproducible doseresponse effect occurs and/or a doubling of the ratio Rt/Rc is reached.
Statistics:
For the evaluation of results, the modified two-fold increase rule was used, which is compatible with the application of statistical methods:Dunkel V. C.. Chu K.C. (1980): Evaluation of methods for analysis of microbial mutagenicity assays in The Predictive Value of Short-Term Screening Tests in Carcinogenicity Evaluation. Elsevier North-Holland Biomedical Press. 231 - 417Claxton L. D. et al. (1987): Guide for the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome tests for bacterial mutagenicity. Mutat. Res. 189. 83 - 91

Results and discussion

Test resultsopen allclose all
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not determined
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1537
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not determined
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not determined
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Key result
Species / strain:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not determined
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA: Each experiment included corresponding positive (reference mutagens) and negative controls (untreated control, solvent control). Untreated controls contain no solvent and negative controls contain 0.1 mL of water for injection. All the control numbers were compared with historical ranges of mutant frequencies obtained in our laboratory. The actual numbers were in ranges of the historical numbers.ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON CYTOTOXICITY:For toxicity experiment, the starting solution (5000 μg/0.1 mL) was diluted to concentration series 10 – 5000 μg per plate.Although no particles could be observed in higher concentrations due to dark colour of solutions, no particles were observable in top agar and Petri dishes. The concentration row was tested for toxicity in strain TA 98 without metabolic activation.No toxicity or precipitation was observed in any dose. The concentration of 5000 µg.0.1 mL-1 was then used as maximum in the first mutagenicity experiments. Further doses were diluted with factor approximately 2-√10.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Under the above-described experimental design, the test substance, Direct Blue 85, was non mutagenic for all the Salmonella typhimurium as well as Escherichia coli strains with as well as without metabolic activation.
Executive summary:

The test substance Direct Blue 85 was assayed for the mutagenicity by the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test. The performed test was based on EU method B.13/14 Mutagenicity – Reverse mutation test using bacteria, which is analogous to the OECD Test Guideline No. 471.

Four indicator Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537 and one indicator Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain were used.

The test substance was diluted in water for injection at the highest recommended concentration of 5000 μg per plate and tested for toxicity in S. typhimurium strain TA 98. No cytotoxicity or precipitation occurred in any dose.

First mutagenicity experiments were performed with concentration range 50-5000 μg per plate applied to plates in volume of 0.1 mL in experiments without as well as with metabolic activation with a supernatant of rat liver and a mixture of cofactors.

No signs of a positive response were observed in any tester strain, so, to increase the sensitivity of the assay, the second mutagenicity experiments were performed with pre-incubation for 30 minutes at 37±1°C and shaking.

The concurrent positive controls verified the sensitivity of the assay and the metabolising activity of the liver preparations. Mean revertant colony counts for the vehicle controls were within the current historical control range for the laboratory

In the arrangement given above, the test substance, Direct Blue 85, was non-mutagenic for all the used tester strains without as well as with metabolic activation.