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EC number: 266-004-1 | CAS number: 65996-71-6 The fused substance formed by the action of a flux upon the gangue of iron-bearing materials charged to a steelmaking furnace and upon the oxidized impurities in the steel produced. Depending upon the particular steelmaking operation, the slag is composed primarily of sulfur and oxides of aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and silicon.
Summary Microscopic Findings – Scheduled Euthanasia Animals (Day 27/28)
Target Concentration (mg/L)
No. animals examined
Lung (No. examined)
Inflammatory cell infiltration, mononuclear cell
Other microscopic findings observed were considered incidental, of the nature commonly observed in this strain and age of rat, and/or were of similar incidence and severity in control and treated animals and, therefore, were considered unrelated to inhalation administration of GGBS.
Summary Microscopic Findings – Scheduled Euthanasia Animals (Day 120/121)
The increased incidence of minimal to mild inflammatory cell infiltration composed of mononuclear cells could be considered as part of background spontaneous pathology. Given the absence of significant inflammation and tissue destruction and the lack of a clear dose related effect macrophage aggregates and pigmented macrophages could be considered as an adaptive process (Nikula et al., 2014).
Male and female rats were exposed to solid GGBS aerosol at measured concentrations of 4.3, 9.5 or 24.9 µg/L for 6 hours per day for 5 days per week over 4 weeks (5 or 6 days in Week 4). Particle size distribution measurements indicated that the test aerosols were within the respirable range for rats and that the experiment could be considered valid.
Elevated neutrophil counts seen in blood and BAL fluid and elevated white blood cell and macrophages in BAL at 24mg/L could be correlated with the microscopic findings (inflammatory cell infiltration, macrophage aggregates, and pigmented macrophages) observed in the lung.
As haematology, BAL fluid and microscopic changes were also evident following 13 weeks of recovery (albeit to a lesser magnitude), this suggests an adaptive response which was partially reversible at the intermediate and high dose levels. Pigmented macrophages in the lung, observed in the low dose group following recovery, were not accompanied by any inflammatory findings in blood, BAL or other histopathology and their presence was therefore considered to be adaptive and non-adverse.
No evidence of potential cell injury (lactate dehydrogenase), effects on the alveolar-capillary barrier (total protein), lysosomal instability (b-N-acetyl-glycosaminidase) were observed in the BAL fluid which would indicate any toxicity to exposure to GGBS.
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