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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to fish

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Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Read-across from sodium hypochlorite (justification see IUCLID5 section 6.1 or CSR section 7.1.1): 
Sea water: For molluscs and fish, long-term toxicity studies have also been performed. Molluscs (15d NOEC = 7 µg TRO/L) were shown to be more sensitive than fish fry (28d NOEC (fry survival) = 40µg CPO/L).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Marine water fish

Marine water fish
Effect concentration:
0.04 mg/L

Additional information

Read-across from sodium hypochlorite (justification see IUCLID5 section 6.1 or CSR section 7.1.1):

For the evaluation of long-term toxicity to estuarine fish, the searched literature provided one fully valid data. Goodman et al. (1983) developed a method for testing the early-life stages of Menidia peninsulae, an estuarine fish of the Atherinidae family. They carried out a 28d test starting with 36h old eggs, under flow through conditions using natural seawater diluted with freshwater to a 20%° salinity, and measured the effects of sodium hypochlorite on eggs survival and fry survival and growth. Fry were the most sensitive stage. The authors calculated a NOEC (fry survival)= 0.04 mg CPO/l (CPO is to be considered analogous to TRC measured by other authors in saline waters), concentration at which only 5% of fish died. At this concentration no sublethal effects were evident. The results of this test are considered fully valid (rated 1).

One prolonged field study has been carried out by Liden et al. (1980) on two different estuarine fish species Brevoortia tyrannus and Leiostomus xanthurus exposed to chlorinated condenser cooling effluents for 19 and 20 days, respectively. All experiments were carried out in long troughs system where discharge waters, at three levels of chlorination, were continuously pumped, with inflow rates maintained at 0.038 l/s to simulate cooling water retention times observed in the plant’s discharge canal. Up to the highest concentration (62 μg/l as TRO) a negligible mortality occurred among B. tyrannus, whereas at all TRO concentrations, the survival of L. xanthurus was significantly lower than that of control fish. At the lowest concentration (14 μg/l) mortality occurred in 26% of animals but, because of the lack of a clear concentration-effect relationship, no NOEC or EC10 can be calculated or extrapolated. These data are therefore not usable for assessment.