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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From 14 - 16 May 1991
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP Guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
As 2-amylanthraquinone is highly unstable in water under influence of light, the study was conducted under reduced light conditions (<100 lux).
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Nominal concentrations: 13, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/l.
- Sampling method: At test initiation bulk solutions were sampled and after 24 hours one test vessel per concentration. At 48 hours, all vessels were sampled.
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: An amount of 20 mg 2-amylanthraquinone was dissolved in 10 ml DMSO resulting in a concentration of 2000 mg/l. This stock solution was diluted with DMSO to obtain stock solutions of 130, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/l. A volume of 60 µl of these solutions was added to 600 ml ISO+ water.
- Controls: A control with DMSO in test medium and a control with test medium were included.
- Chemical name of vehicle: DMSO.
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium: 0.1 ml/l.
- Evidence of undissolved material: No.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: TNO, the Netherlands.
- Age at study initiation: 0 - 24 hours
- Method of breeding: Waterfleas are cultured in vessels with 2 liter spring water. They are fed with algal suspension of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and a yeast/Mikromin suspension.
- Feeding during test: not applicable
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
250 mg/l calcium carbonate.
Test temperature:
21.9 - 23.5°C.
pH:
Controls: 7.9 - 8.0.
Test concentrations: 7.9 - 8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
Controls: 9.0 - 9.1.
Test concentrations: 8.3 - 9.0.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
See Table 1.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open.
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: glass 250 ml glass beakers were filled with 200 ml
- Aeration: No.
- Renewal rate of test solution: No.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 water fleas.
- No. of vessels per concentration: 3 replicates.
- No. of vessels per control: 3 replicates.
- No. of vessels per vehicle control: 3 replicates.

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: ISO+ water prepared from distilled water.
- Culture medium different from test medium: yes. Water fleas were cultured in spring water.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No.
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light/8 hours dark
- Light intensity: <100 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: After 24 and 48 hours the water fleas were observed for immobility, floating on the surface, slower movement, uncontrolled movement, laying down on bottom of test vessel and abnormal shape.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 154 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
See Table 2.

Table 2: Immobility of Daphnia magna during the acute toxicity test

Nominal test concentration (µg/l)

Number of immobile fleas

Number of water fleas tested

Percentage of immobility after 48 hours

24 h

48 h

0 (control)

0

0

30

0

0 (DMSO-control)

0

0

31

0

13

0

1

31

3

25

0

0

28

0

50

1

1

30

7

100

0

1

30

3

200

0

0

31

0

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Short term toxicity of 2-amylanthraquinone to aquatic invertebrates was studied on Daphnia magna in laboratory conditions. Organisms were exposed to nominal concentrations of the test substance: 13, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/l. The highest nominal concentration of 200 µg/l was equivalent to 154 µg/l of measured concentration. Observations were carried for 48 hours. EC50 was calculated to be above 154 µg/l.

Description of key information

In an OECD 202 test guideline study, Daphnia magna were exposed for 48 hours, static, to 2 -amylanthraquinone. The substance is unstable in water under influence of light, therefore the study was performed under reduced light. Organisms were exposed to nominal concentrations of the test substance: 13, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/L. The highest measured concentration was 154 µg/L (comparable to water solubility). The EC50 was calculated to be greater than 154 μg/L (measured concentration).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

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