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Particle size distribution (Granulometry)

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Reference
Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
14 APR 2010
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Remarks:
Manufacturer's data based on best practise found for granulometric analysis of betaine. The study was performed in the manufacturer's laboratory which has an ISO 9001 quality certificate.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Best practise found by manufacturer to determine particle size of betaine by mechanical sieving. Test is performed to analyze crystal size distribution and fineness number with two different sieve series. Standard deviation for first sieving 34 %, and for second sieving 30 %.

Sieve analyses were carried out useing Fritch sieving equipment Analysette 3. Diameter of the sieves used was 200 mm. The vibration amplitude was set to value 7 which is commonly used in determining the particle size of different crystallized sugars. The vibration time was six minutes and it was continuously on (setting “perm” chosen). All the chosen sieves were piled to the sieve base. 100 grams of crystals was weighted and put to the top sieve. The cover was attached and then the equipment was started. After six minutes vibration time the sieves were weighted.

The first sieve series consisted on the following sieves: 1.000 mm, 0.800 mm, 0.630 mm, 0.500 mm, 0.400 mm, 0.315 mm, 0.200 mm and 0.125 mm.

The second sieve series consisted on the following sieves: 0.500 mm, 0.400 mm, 0.315 mm, 0.200 mm, 0.125 mm, 0.075 mm, 0.045 mm and 0.025 mm.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
sieving
Type of distribution:
volumetric distribution
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
>= 0.315 - <= 400 µm
Remarks on result:
other: First sieving: Fineness number of the crystals with this sieve series was 0.404 mm. Standard deviation was 34%. Second sieving: Fineness number of the crystals was 0.408 mm. Standard deviation was 30%.
Percentile:
D99
Mean:
>= 0.315 - <= 0.4 mm
St. dev.:
34
Percentile:
D99
Mean:
>= 0.315 - <= 0.4 mm
St. dev.:
30
No.:
#1
Size:
>= 0.045 - <= 0.075 mm
Distribution:
<= 1 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 1%
No.:
#2
Size:
> 0.075 - <= 0.125 mm
Distribution:
>= 2.9 - <= 3.3 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 2.3-2.9 %
No.:
#3
Size:
>= 0.125 - <= 0.2 mm
Distribution:
>= 6.8 - <= 7 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 3.7-3.9 %
No.:
#4
Size:
>= 0.2 - <= 0.315 mm
Distribution:
>= 23 - <= 23.4 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 16.2-16.4 %
No.:
#5
Size:
> 0.315 - < 0.4 mm
Distribution:
>= 47.9 - <= 48.8 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 24.5-25.8 %
No.:
#6
Size:
>= 0.4 - <= 0.5 mm
Distribution:
>= 78.2 - <= 80.8 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 29.4-32.9%
No.:
#7
Size:
0.5 - 0.63 mm
Distribution:
>= 95.7 - 100 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 17.5-19.3 %
No.:
#8
Size:
0.63 - 0.8 mm
Distribution:
<= 98.7 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 3%
No.:
#9
Size:
0.8 - 1 mm
Distribution:
<= 99.5 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 0.8 %
No.:
#10
Size:
>= 1 mm
Distribution:
<= 100 %
Remarks on result:
other: mass fraction: 0.5 %
Conclusions:
The particle size of betaine varies between different products. The particle size of the most common product (tradename Betafin BP) was measured by using two different sieving series.The particle size distribution of the two measurements showed that the mean diameter of the particles is in the range of 0.315-0.4 mm. Based on the cumulative frequency distribution 48-49 % of this material is smaller than 0.4 mm. 2.9-3.3 % of the sieved material has particle size between 0.075 mm and 0.125 mm. 1% of the particles are smaller than 0.075 mm.

The very hygroscopic nature of betaine may affect particle size analysis. It is not possible to determine particle size distribution when humidity is present to the extent that it is disturbing meachanical sieving.
Executive summary:

The particle size of betaine varies between different products. The particle size of the most common product (tradename Betafin BP) was measured by using two different sieving series.The particle size distribution of the two measurements showed that the mean diameter of the particles is in the range of 0.315-0.4 mm. Based on the cumulative frequency distribution 48-49 % of this material is smaller than 0.4 mm. 2.9-3.3 % of the sieved material has particle size between 0.075 mm and 0.125 mm. 1% of the particles are smaller than 0.075 mm.

Description of key information

The study was carried out by mechanical sieving using a vibratory sieve shaker. The study was performed in the manufacturer's laboratory which has an ISO 9001 quality certificate.

Additional information

The particle size distribution from two measurements showed that the mean diameter of the particles is in the range of 0.315-0.4 mm. Based on the cumulative frequency distribution 48-49 % of this material is smaller than 0.4 mm. 2.9-3.3 % of the sieved material has a particle size between 0.075 mm and 0.125 mm. 1% of the particles are smaller than 0.075 mm.