Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Toxic effect type:
dose-dependent

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
Not available
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Refer to section 13 of IUCLID for details on the category justification.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
Sprague-Dawley rats (Vivo Bio Tech Ltd), age: 6–7 weeks
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: water with Tween 80 (0.5% w/v) and carboxymethyl cellulose (1% w/v)
Details on oral exposure:
Preliminary tests found that the test substance was suitable for oral gavage by suspension in water with Tween 80 (0.5% w/v) as a surfactant and carboxymethyl cellulose (1% w/v) as a suspending agent.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Analyses performed to verify the concentrations of the test substance in dosing formulations showed that they were within an acceptable range compared to their respective nominal concentrations.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 d
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
250 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
500 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
20 (10 males and 10 females)
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
Rats were divided into six groups. Four groups of 20 (10 males and 10 females) were treated for 90 d by oral gavage with the vehicle control, the low dose of 250 mg/kg bw/day, the mid dose of 500 mg/kg bw/day, or the high dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. An additional 10 animals (five males and five females) in the control and in the high-dose groups were allowed to recover for an additional 28 days.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
Observations:

Mortality (daily), clinical signs (weekly),
Ophthalmological examinations: before study initiation and at study termination,
Neurological parameters: qualitative and quantitative assessment of sensory reactivity, grip strength, motor activity, frequency of urination, defecation, rearing, and landing foot splay,
Body weight and food consumption: weekly,
Samples for hematology and clinical chemistry analysis: taken just prior to sacrifice.

Hematological parameters include hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count, platelet count, and blood clotting time.

Clinical chemistry determinations include sodium, potassium, glucose, total cholesterol, urea, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein and albumin, and two or more enzymes that indicate hepatocellular effects.

Urine samples taken during the last week before sacrifice are examined for appearance, volume, osmolality or specific gravity, pH, protein, glucose, and presence of blood or blood cells.
Sacrifice and pathology:
At study termination, gross necropsy is performed including complete external body examination and organ weights recorded for liver, kidneys, adrenals, testes, epididymides, uterus, ovaries thymus, spleen, brain, and heart. Histopathological examination is performed on tissue samples from: all gross lesions, representative brain regions, spinal cord at three levels, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small and large intestines (including Peyer’s patches), liver, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, spleen, heart, trachea, lungs, aorta, gonads, uterus, accessory sex organs, female mammary gland, prostate, urinary bladder, lymph nodes, peripheral nerve, bone marrow section, skin, and eyes if changes were observed upon examination. Tissue samples are fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin before embedding in paraffin wax. Sections of 5 μm thickness are stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination.
Statistics:
The results were analyzed statistically with IBM SPSS Statistical Software (version 23). Following assessment of homogeneity, using Levene’s test, of body weight, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, and neurological examination data, different groups were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Comparisons between treated and control groups were analyzed by t tests with variance evaluated at the 5% level of significance.
Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No clinical signs were found in any group other than respiratory rales in one control male (day 84 until termination at day 91) and one treated, mid-dose (500 mg/kg bw/d) male from day 80 until day 91; these observations were incidental, not dose-related, and of no toxicological significance.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The average weight of male animals in the high treatment recovery group, was less than the average of males in the control recovery group, a difference that was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Based on the combined data from all dose groups and food consumption data, it is concluded that consumption of the test substance did not have an adverse effect on body weight or body weight gain.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The results are normal with no differences between control and treated groups except for elevated total WBC counts for the high-dose group at the end of the recovery period. Although statistically higher than concurrent controls, the value 10.08+E3/cm2 is well within the historical range for control rats in 90-day studies at the test facility.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
A few isolated measurements were statistically different from controls, but are considered to be incidental and without biological significance due to lack of any dose dependency as well as their values falling within ranges of the laboratory’s historical controls.
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The only statistically significant difference in mean organ weights noted at end of the 90 d treatment was that of the relative, but not absolute, heart weight in females being lesser than the control, which in absence of dose dependence, was considered to be incidental. At the end of the 28 d recovery period, absolute and relative adrenal weights only in male rats were statistically higher in the high dose group as compared to controls, and absolute liver weights were significantly lower in the highest dose group females only than in control rats. These results appear to be incidental due to the lack of any changes in other correlated parameters, such as necropsy findings, histopathology findings, clinical hematology, and clinical chemistry.
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Gross necropsy revealed an absence of any remarkable gross abnormalities in all but two male animals at the end of the 90 d treatment period and two males at the end of the 28 d recovery phase. One mid-dose rat had multiple abscesses in the lungs and another mid dose rat animal had underweight testes and epididymides. These incidental findings were found only in this group and are concluded to be unrelated to dosing with the test substance. Moderate splenic enlargement was found in two high dose males at the end of the recovery period, but subsequent histopathologic examination showed this to be due to splenic congestion, a common condition considered to be incidental in this case.
Neuropathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The evaluation of tissues and organs from control and high-dose groups showed no incidence of any remarkable findings that could be related to treatment due to lack of any dose dependency as well as their values falling within ranges of the laboratory’s historical controls. Single animals in different groups showed isolated (1 in 20 animals) findings.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Other effects:
not specified
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
clinical signs
mortality
Key result
Critical effects observed:
no

For detailed results tables kindly refer to the attached background materials section of the IUCLID.

Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 90 d NOEL was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose oral toxicity of the read-across substance, C16 MEA, according to a design based on OECD Guideline 408, in compliance with GLP. Preliminary tests found that the test substance was suitable for oral gavage by suspension in water with Tween 80 (0.5% w/v) as a surfactant and carboxymethyl cellulose (1% w/v) as a suspending agent. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Four groups of 20 (10 males and 10 females) were treated for 90 d by oral gavage with the vehicle control, the low dose of 250 mg/kg bw/day, the mid dose of 500 mg/kg bw/day, or the high dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. An additional 10 animals (five males and five females) in the control and in the high-dose groups were allowed to recover for an additional 28 d. The following observations and examinations were performed: mortality (daily), clinical signs (weekly), functional observations and locomotor activity (end of treatment), body weight and food consumption (weekly), clinical pathology (end of treatment), ophthalmological examinations (before study initiation and at study termination), macroscopy at termination, organ weights and histopathology on a selection of tissues. There were some incidental findings that are concluded to be unrelated to treatment and of no toxicological significance. No treatment-related adverse effects were found up to the highest tested dose level of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. Under the study conditions, the 90 d NOEL was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day (Nestmann, 2016).

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Well conducted and comparable to guideline study, no information on GLP status
Justification for type of information:
Refer to section 13 of IUCLID for details on the category justification.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 407 (Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Mus-Rattus, Brunntal, Germany
- Strain: Wistar rat, MuRa Han 67 SPF
- Age at study initiation: between 6-7 wk
- Weight at study initiation: 109 (f) - 114 (m) g
- Housing: plastic cages, 3 males and 5 females/cage
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum (Altromin Ratdiet No. 1424 DK, Altromin GmbH, Lage, Germany)
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum (tap water)
- Acclimation period: 6 d

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19-22
- Humidity (%): 60-80
- Air changes (per hr): 11
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
olive oil
Details on oral exposure:
Doses were adapted weekly to the body weight; application volume - 5 mL/kg bw
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no information
Duration of treatment / exposure:
28 d
Frequency of treatment:
daily once, 5 times/wk
Dose / conc.:
70 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
(Days 1-28)
Basis:
actual ingested
Dose / conc.:
250 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
(Days 1-28)
Basis:
actual ingested
Dose / conc.:
750 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
(Days 1-14)
Basis:
actual ingested
Dose / conc.:
1 500 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
(Days 15-28)
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10/sex/dose for main; 5/sex/dose for 4 month recovery period
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
according to standard procedure
Positive control:
not necessary
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: end of study

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: weekly

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: end of study
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (ether)
- How many animals: 10 per dose and sex
- Parameters checked: Hematocrit, erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin, thrombocytes, mean corpuscular volume, white blood cell differential

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: end of study
- How many animals: 10 per sex and dose
- Parameters checked: GPT, GOT, AP, glucose, urea, total protein, calcium, phosphate, cholesterol

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: end of study
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: No
- Parameters checked: urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, glucose, calcium, ap

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

Other: Groups of 5 male and 5 female rats kept for an additional 4 month recovery period.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
the following tissues/organs were examined:
adrenal gland
aorta thoracica
brain (cornu ammonis)
coagulating gland with seminal vesicle
epididymis
eye with optic nerve
heart
intestine, large
intestine, small
kidney
liver
lungs
lymph node (cervical)
lymph node (mesenteric)
mucles
oesophagus
ovary
pancreas
prostate
salivary glands (mandibular, parotid and sublingual gland)
skin
spleen
stomach
testicle
thymus
thyroid (incl. parathyroids)
tongue
trachea (incl. larynx)
urinary bladder
uterus (incl. cervix and oviducts)

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes
see gross pathology
Other examinations:
None
Statistics:
t-test used for statistical analysis of all parameters except organ weight (U-test)
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
The doses up to 1500 mg/kg body weight/day were tolerated by all animals without lethality.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The body weight gain and total increase of body weights did not differ from the control group.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not specified
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The biochemical parameters calcium, blood sugar, urea, creatinine, cholesterine, GGT, GOT, GPT and LDH did not show any critical signs. Only slight shifts which were not dose-dependent could be observed. These signs were considered as not substance depending.
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Absolute and relative organ weights showed no significant changes in the substance groups compared to the control group, except the organ weight of the liver which is slightly increased for the males of group 4 (750/1500 mg/kg bw) and increased adrenal glands weight in high dose females. This result is considered of no relevance.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The pathological and histological evaluation did not show significant compound related gross or microscocopic organ injury of liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, lung, spleen and gonads; dose dependent reversible local findings were restricted to the fore stomach mucosa (important hyperplasia and ulcerations, in some cases also hyper- and parakeratosis of the forestomach of males and females at the high dose. Similar effects but less intense at the medium and low doses).
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The pathological and histological evaluation did not show significant compound related gross or microscocopic organ injury of liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, lung, spleen and gonads; dose dependent reversible local findings were restricted to the fore stomach mucosa (important hyperplasia and ulcerations, in some cases also hyper- and parakeratosis of the forestomach of males and females at the high dose. Similar effects but less intense at the medium and low doses).
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 750 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No biologically relevant treatment-related effects observed on any of the parameters recorded at any dose, also test animals treated with 1500 mg/kg bw (Days 15-28) showed no adverse effect
Key result
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 28 d NOAEL to rats was considered to be >750 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose oral toxicity of the read across substance, C12-18 and C18-unsatd. MEA, according to a design based on OECD Guideline 407. Groups of 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats were orally gavaged with the substance diluted in olive oil, 5 d/week for 28 d at doses of 0, 70, 250, 750 (Days 1-14) and 1500 (Days 15-28) mg/kg bw/day. Clinical signs, bodyweight, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, gross and microscopic pathology were recorded. Additional groups of 5 male and 5 female rats were kept for a 4 month recovery period. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed at any of the doses. Changes in the forestomach at some doses including controls were attributed to the use of olive oil and found to be reversible after end of exposure. Under the study conditions, the 28 d NOAEL to rats was considered to be >750 mg/kg bw/day (Potokar, 1983).

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
31 January 2013 - 17 June 2013
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
KL2 due to RA
Justification for type of information:
Refer to section 13 of IUCLID for details on the category justification.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: breeder: Charles River Laboratories Italia, Calco, Italy
- Age/weight at study initiation: on the first day of treatment, the males were approximately 10 weeks old and had a mean body weight of 388 g (range: 335 g to 438 g) and the females were approximately 9 weeks old had a mean body weight of 236 g (range: 203 g to 270 g)
- Housing: the animals were individually housed, except during pairing and lactation, in polycarbonate cages
- Diet: SSNIFF R/M-H pelleted diet (free access)
- Water: tap water filtered with a 0.22 µm filter (free access)
- Acclimation period: 8 days before the beginning of the study.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22 ± 2°C
- Humidity (%): 50 ± 20%
- Air changes (per hr): approximately 12 cycles/hour of filtered, non-recycled air
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 h/12 h.

IN-LIFE DATES: 13 February 2013 to 09 April 2013.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test item was administered as a suspension in the vehicle. The dose formulations were prepared according to the following process, as described in an homogeneity/stability study:
- a small amount of test item was melt using water bath at a temperature of +50°C,
- the vehicle was warmed at +50°C using water bath,
- the appropriate amount of melt test item was weighed in the preparation beaker and the corresponding amount of vehicle was added,
- the test item and the vehicle were mixed using magnetic stirrer in the water bath at +50°C during 10 minutes,
- the obtained suspension was stirred at ambient temperature at least 30 minutes.

No correction factor was applied.
The test item dose formulations were prepared on a weekly basis, stored at room temperature protected from light prior to use and delivered to the study room at room temperature and protected from light.

When not on the day of formulation preparation, test item formulations were warmed under magnetic stirring at +50°C using water bath during at least 30 minutes and then kept under magnetically stirring at ambient temperature for at least 30 minutes before daily delivery to the study room.

VEHICLE
- Choice of vehicle: good suspension in corn oil
- Concentration in vehicle: 20, 60 and 200 mg/mL
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 5 mL/kg/day.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Type of method: GC-FID
Test item concentrations: remained within an acceptable range of variation compared to nominal values.
Homogeneity: assessed in homogeneity study (satisfactory results)
Stability: assessed in stability study (stable after 9 days at room temperature and protected from light)
Duration of treatment / exposure:
In the males:
− 2 weeks before mating,
− during the mating period,
− until sacrifice (at least 5 weeks in total),

In the females:
− 2 weeks before mating,
− during the mating period (1 week),
− during pregnancy,
− during lactation until day 5 post-partum inclusive,
− until sacrifice for females which had not delivered.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Remarks:
Controls
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 animals per sex per dose.
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
The dose-levels were selected in agreement with the Sponsor, following the results of a previous 2-week toxicity study. In this study, three groups of three male and three female Sprague-Dawley rats received the test item as a suspension in corn oil at 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg/day bw for 2 weeks by gavage. There were no unscheduled deaths. Reduced mean body weight gain and mean food consumption were noted in males during the first week of treatment. Clinical signs were ptyalism in all test item-treated animals and hunched posture in two males and one female at the high-dose during the second week of treatment. There were no test item-related macroscopic findings.

- Animal assignment: computerized stratification procedure.
Positive control:
no (not required)
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
The animals were checked at least twice daily during the dosing period for mortality and morbidity and once daily for clinical signs. Detailed clinical observations were performed once a week. Body weight and food consumption were recorded once a week during premating and mating periods (food consumption not during mating), and during gestation on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 p.c. and lactation on days 1 and 5 p.p.. The animals were paired for mating after 2 weeks of treatment and the females were allowed to litter and rear their progeny until day 5 p.p.. At the end of the treatment period, Functional Observation Battery, motor activity and laboratory investigations (hematology and blood biochemistry) were carried out on five males and five females.
Sacrifice and pathology:
The males were sacrificed after at least 5 weeks of treatment and the females on day 6 p.p.. Final body weights and selected organs weights (adrenals, brain, epididymides, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, testes and thymus) were recorded and a complete macroscopic post-mortem examination was performed, with particular attention paid to the reproductive organs. A microscopic examination was performed on selected organs from five males and five females in the control- and high-dose groups, on liver, thymus, seminal vesicles and bone marrow from five males and/or five females in the low- and intermediate-dose groups and on all macroscopic lesions.
Statistics:
Body weight, food consumption and reproductive data :
Data were compared by one-way analysis of variances and Dunnett test (mean values being considered as normally distributed, variances being
considered as homogenous) or by Fischer exact probability test (proportions).

Hematology and blood biochemistry:
A specific sequence was used for the statistical analyses of hematology and blood biochemistry data.

Organ weight:
PathData software was used to perform the statistical analysis of organ weight data (level of significance: 0.05 or 0.01) according to a specific sequence
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Ptyalism, considered of minor toxicological significance, was observed in all animals at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day bw from the first or second week of treatment and in most of the animals at 100 mg/kg/day bw but later. Hypoactivity, loud breathing, piloerection and/or round back observed for some days in a few animals at 300 mg/kg/day bw but more at 1000 mg/kg/day bw were considered to be of limited toxicological significance. Incidental findings consisted of half-closed eyes, reflux at dosing, cutaneous lesion and abnormal growth of teeth.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
Ptyalism, considered of minor toxicological significance, was observed in all animals at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day bw from the first or second week of treatment and in most of the animals at 100 mg/kg/day bw but later. Hypoactivity, loud breathing, piloerection and/or round back observed for some days in a few animals at 300 mg/kg/day bw but more at 1000 mg/kg/day bw were considered to be of limited toxicological significance. Incidental findings consisted of half-closed eyes, reflux at dosing, cutaneous lesion and abnormal growth of teeth.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In males, mean food consumption at 1000 mg/kg/day bw was statistically significantly reduced in the first week of treatment when compared with controls (which correlated with a non-statistically significantly lower mean body weight gain at that time). It became similar to controls in the second week of dosing. This slight and transient effect was considered to be of limited toxicological significance. Mean food consumption at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day bw was not affected. Mean food consumption in females was considered to be unaffected by the test item treatment.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
APPT values were not considered to be affected (one control data in males was higher than the others hence the shortened mean values in the test item-treated groups; there was no dose-relationship in females). For the slightly higher mean white blood cell counts when compared with controls, a relationship with the test item treatment was considered to be doubtful (no clear dose-relationship, individual values generally included in historical control data, and no statistical level).
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Mean cholesterol level was higher in test item-treated female groups in a dose-related manner, reaching statistical and toxicological significance at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day bw. All individual values in both groups were included in historical control data and in absence of adverse correlates in the study, this was considered to be non-adverse. There was no dose-relationship in males, but an effect of the test item may be suspected in two males treated at 1000 mg/kg/day bw which had a high cholesterol level (2.3 and 2.4 mmol/L). Mean sodium concentration was also statistically significant higher in females treated at 1000 mg/kg/day bw when compared with controls. Males or other electrolytes in females were not affected and the variation was not severe. Therefore, this finding was not considered to be of toxicological significance. An effect of the test item treatment on mean albumin concentration at 300 mg/kg/day bw in both sexes was considered unlikely as there was no dose-relationship. The increase observed in triglyceride levels at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day bw in both sexes was considered to be incidental as there was no statistical level reached for the group means and no dose-relationship seen in individual data. Moreover, the increase at 1000 mg/kg/day bw was due to isolated animals per sex only.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
An effect of the test item treatment in males and females at 300 and/or 1000 mg/kg/day bw on mean motor activity data was considered to be equivocal but of limited toxicological significance. The vast majority of the individual data were similar to what can usually be seen in this type of study.
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
When compared with controls, the mean absolute and relative liver weights were higher in males and females given 1000 mg/kg/day bw and in males given 300 mg/kg/day bw, reaching statistically significant values in both sexes at 1000 mg/kg/day bw (p<0.01 except for the absolute weight in females where it was p<0.05). This correlated histologically with minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy and was considered to be test item-related. The mean absolute and relative thymus weights were lower in females given 1000 mg/kg/day bw, without reaching a statistically significant value. This correlated with minimal to slight atrophy in two females and was considered to be probably test item-related. The mean absolute heart weight was higher in males given 100 mg/kg/day bw. In the absence of a dose-related trend, any relationship with the test item was considered to be excluded. Other changes in the mean organ weights were considered to be part of the normal variation in rats and without relationship with the test item.
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The thymus was reduced in one female given 1000 mg/kg/day bw correlating in this animal with a small weight (0.1200 g) and histologically with slight atrophy. A relationship with the test item was considered to be likely. Irregular color was seen in the lungs of 3/5 males given 1000 mg/kg/day bw. This correlated histologically with presence of mucus and inflammation (chronic) and/or alveolar macrophages. These changes were consistent with aspiration or regurgitation of the oily vehicle or test item during the technical gavage procedures.
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Test item-related changes were observed in the liver and the thymus.

Liver
Minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy was seen in 1/5 males given the test item at 300 mg/kg/day bw and 4/6 males and 2/5 females given
1000 mg/kg/day bw. This non-adverse change was considered to be test item-related and correlated with the higher weight noted at necropsy.
Other changes seen in the liver, including the minimal foci of subcapsular necrosis seen in 1/5 control females, 1/5 males at 300 mg/kg/day bw and
2/5 females at 1000 mg/kg/day bw were considered to be fortuitous and without any relationship with the test item.

Thymus
Minimal or slight lymphoid atrophy was seen in 2/5 females given 1000 mg/kg/day bw, correlating with the lower weight at necropsy. Any relationship with the test item was considered to be likely but non-adverse (low number of animals affected and low grades). No test item-related changes were seen at 100 or 300 mg/kg/day bw.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Description (incidence and severity):
See details below.
Other effects:
not examined
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: Parental toxicity (non adverse)
Key result
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the NOAEL for parent systemic toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose oral toxicity of the read across substance, C18-unsatd. MIPA, according to OECD Guideline 422, in compliance with GLP. Groups of ten male and ten female Sprague-Dawley rats received the read across substance at dose-levels of 0, 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day daily by oral (gavage) administration 2 weeks before mating, during mating, gestation and until up to Day 5 p.p. The concentration of the dose formulation was checked in study Weeks 1, 3 and 6. The animals were checked at least twice daily during the dosing period for mortality and morbidity and once daily for clinical signs. Detailed clinical observations were performed once a week. Body weight and food consumption were recorded once a week during premating and mating periods (food consumption not during mating), and during gestation on Days 0, 7, 14 and 20 p.c. and lactation on Days 1 and 5 p.p. The animals were paired for mating after 2 weeks of treatment and the females were allowed to litter and rear their progeny until Day 5 p.p. The total litter sizes and the sex of each pup were recorded after birth. The pups were observed daily for clinical signs, abnormal behaviour and external abnormalities and weighed on Days 1 and 5 p.p. At the end of the treatment period, Functional Observation Battery, motor activity and laboratory investigations (hematology and blood biochemistry) were carried out on five males and five females. The males were sacrificed after at least 5 weeks of treatment and the females on Day 6 p.p. Final body weights and selected organs weights (adrenals, brain, epididymides, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, testes and thymus) were recorded and a complete macroscopic post-mortem examination was performed, with particular attention paid to the reproductive organs. A microscopic examination was performed on selected organs from five males and five females in the control- and high-dose groups, on liver, thymus, seminal vesicles and bone marrow from five males and/or five females in the low- and intermediate-dose groups and on all macroscopic lesions. The pups were sacrificed on Day 5 p.p. and submitted for a macroscopic post-mortem examination of the principal thoracic and abdominal organs. The read across substance concentrations checked during the study were within an acceptable range of variations when compared to the nominal values (± 15%). There was no read across substance in control formulations. There were no read across substance-related deaths. Clinical signs consisted of ptyalism in all animals at 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day and in most of the animals at 100 mg/kg bw/day (minor toxicological significance), as well as hypoactivity, loud breathing, piloerection and/or round back observed in a few animals at 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day for a few days (limited toxicological significance). There were no relevant effects on mean body weight, mean Functional Observation Battery (FOB), as well as on mean hematology parameters in any group and sex. An effect of the read across substance treatment on mean motor activity data at 300 and/or 1000 mg/kg bw/day was considered to be equivocal but of limited toxicological significance. In males, mean food consumption at 1000 mg/kg bw/day was reduced in the first week of treatment only (23 g/male/day, vs. 27, p<0.001). This effect was considered to be of limited toxicological significance. Mean food consumption in males at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day and in females were not affected. In females, mean cholesterol level was higher than in controls at 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day (up to 1.9 mmol/L, vs.1.2, p<0.01) and considered to be non-adverse in absence of adverse correlates in the study. There were no relevant blood biochemistry findings in females at 100 mg/kg bw/day or in males. At histopathology at 1000 mg/kg bw/day, minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy correlating with higher mean liver weight was seen in the liver of both sexes (about +28% in males and +20% in females compared to controls, p<0.01 generally). In females, mild lymphoid atrophy was seen in the thymus of 2/5 females, correlating with lower mean weight at necropsy (about -22% from controls). At 300 mg/kg bw/day, only minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy was seen in the liver of a single male correlating with minor higher mean absolute weight in this group. All these microscopic findings were considered to be non-adverse (low number of animals affected and/or minimal to slight grades). There were no histopathological effects at 100 mg/kg bw/day. Under the study conditions, the NOAEL for parent systemic toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day (Bentz, 2013).

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
From June 1965 to September 1965
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to section 13 of IUCLID for details on the category justification.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Rats were administered dietary levels of the test substance at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2% for 90 d. The animals were observed daily for clinical signs, body weights were recorded weekly and haematological, clinical chemistry and urine examinations were carried out at termination. Gross and histopathological examinations were also performed.
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Carworth Farm E
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS

- Age at study initiation: Weanlings
- Housing: Five animals per cage
- Diet: Powdered Spillers Small Laboratory Animal Diet, ad libitum
- Water: Water, ad libitum
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 d
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Remarks:
0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2% in diet (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15
Control animals:
yes, plain diet
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Day 0 and weekly once thereafter

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): Yes
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg bw/day: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Day 0 and weekly once thereafter

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: At the end of the study
- Parameters checked in table [No.2]: Total erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, total and differential leucocyte counts

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: At the end of the study
- Parameters examined: Liver and kidney function tests and levels of serum glutamic-oxaloncetic and glutamic-pyruvic transaminases and of blood urea checked

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: At the end of the study
- Parameters checked in table [No.3] were examined: Urine was examined for colour, pH, microscopic constituents, protein, reducing substances, bile salts and blood and activity of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Volume and the specific gravity of the urine excreted were measured during a 6 h period of water deprivation and during 4 h period commencing 16 h after a water load of 25 mL/kg.

OTHER: At autopsy, the absolute and relative organ weight of the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, adrenals and gonads were recorded.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes (At autopsy, the gross appearance of the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, adrenals and gonads were recorded)
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (Paraffin wax sections of brain, heart, liver, kidneys, adrenals and gonads together with a wide range of other organs were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination, smears of femoral marrow were stained by the May Grunwald-Giemsa method)
Other examinations:
Palatability test: Pairs of male rats were allowed access to stock diet and to diet containing either one of the four dietary test levels of test material. The consumption of both diets was recorded for a period of 8 d.
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In general rats remained in good health apart from 2 males on 1% test material which were killed on Days 23 and 58 because of weight loss and respiratory distress.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
In general rats remained in good health apart from 2 males on 1% test material which were killed on Days 23 and 58 because of weight loss and respiratory distress.
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Reduced body weight gain was observed from 0.5% onwards.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Food intake was reduced at all dietary levels except the lowest level of 0.1%.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Reductions in hemoglobin levels, hematocrit values and red cell counts in females at 1 and 2% levels but these effects were much less pronounced in males.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Serum levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases were significantly elevated at 0.5% and above in females, but only at 0.5% level in males.
Urinalysis findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Proteinurea was comparable in test and control groups. Tests for blood, bile salts and reducing substances were negative in all groups. Level of Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were significantly elevated at dietary levels of 0.5% and above in females but only at the 0.5% level in males. No significant effect was seen in Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase level at all dietary levels.
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The principal organ weight changes were increases in the relative kidney weight in all test groups except at 0.1% in females and at 0.1 and 0.5% in males and increases in relative liver weight in female on the two highest levels.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No significant findings were observed.
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Examination of the femoral marrow smears showed no deviation from normality. There were no adverse histopathological findings in any organs.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Description (incidence and severity):
OTHER FINDINGS: In the palatability test, exclusive preference was shown to the control diet, virtually no test diet being consumed at any of the dietary levels incorporated. This observation suggests that toxic anorexia was not the cause of reduced food intake.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
0.1 other: %
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks on result:
other: equivalent to 50 mg/kg bw/d
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
0.5 other: %
Organ:
other: bodyweight
Treatment related:
no

For detailed results tables kindly refer to the attached background materials section of the IUCLID.

Conclusions:
Under the study conditions, the 90 d NOEL in rats was considered to be 0.1% in the diet, equivalent to 50 mg/kg bw/d.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose oral toxicity of the read across substance, C12 DEA. The rats were administered read across substance concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2% in diet for 90 d. The animals were observed daily for clinical signs. Body weight were recorded weekly and haematological, clinical chemistry and urine examinations were carried out at termination. Gross and histopathological examinations were also performed at termination. No adverse effect on the appearance or condition of the animals was observed. Growth retardation was associated with diminished food intake from the dose level of 0.5%. Food refusal was demonstrably due to an effect of the test material on palatability of the diet. Terminal haematological examination revealed a reduction in the haemoglobin level, haematocrit and red cell count at the 1 and 2% dose levels in females but less pronounced effects were seen in males. Serum levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were elevated at 0.5% and above in females but only at 0.5 % in males. No untoward effect was observed in the renal function tests. The principal organ weight changes were: increases in the relative kidney weight in all test groups except at 0.1% in females and at 0.1 and 0.5% in males, and increases in the relative liver weight in females on the two highest levels. The types and incidence of histological lesions were comparable in control and test groups. Under the study conditions, the 90 d NOEL in rats was considered to be 0.1% in the diet, equivalent to 50 mg/kg bw/day (Gaunt, 1965).

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
750 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Oral (28 days) 

A study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose oral toxicity of the read across substance, C12-18 and C18-unsatd. MEA, according to a design based on OECD Guideline 407. Groups of 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats were orally gavaged with the substance diluted in olive oil, 5 d/week for 28 d at doses of 0, 70, 250, 750 (Days 1-14) and 1500 (Days 15-28) mg/kg bw/day. Clinical signs, bodyweight, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, gross and microscopic pathology were recorded. Additional groups of 5 male and 5 female rats were kept for a 4 month recovery period. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed at any of the doses. Changes in the forestomach at some doses including controls were attributed to the use of olive oil and found to be reversible after end of exposure. Under the study conditions, the 28 d NOAEL to rats was considered to be >750 mg/kg bw/day (Potokar, 1983).

Oral (combined repeated dose toxicity and reproductive-developmental toxicity screening)

A study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose oral toxicity of the read across substance, C18-unsatd. MIPA, according to OECD Guideline 422, in compliance with GLP. Groups of ten male and ten female Sprague-Dawley rats received the read across substance at dose-levels of 0, 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day daily by oral (gavage) administration 2 weeks before mating, during mating, gestation and until up to Day 5 p.p. The concentration of the dose formulation was checked in study Weeks 1, 3 and 6. The animals were checked at least twice daily during the dosing period for mortality and morbidity and once daily for clinical signs. Detailed clinical observations were performed once a week. Body weight and food consumption were recorded once a week during premating and mating periods (food consumption not during mating), and during gestation on Days 0, 7, 14 and 20 p.c. and lactation on Days 1 and 5 p.p. The animals were paired for mating after 2 weeks of treatment and the females were allowed to litter and rear their progeny until Day 5 p.p. The total litter sizes and the sex of each pup were recorded after birth. The pups were observed daily for clinical signs, abnormal behaviour and external abnormalities and weighed on Days 1 and 5 p.p. At the end of the treatment period, Functional Observation Battery, motor activity and laboratory investigations (hematology and blood biochemistry) were carried out on five males and five females. The males were sacrificed after at least 5 weeks of treatment and the females on Day 6 p.p. Final body weights and selected organs weights (adrenals, brain, epididymides, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, testes and thymus) were recorded and a complete macroscopic post-mortem examination was performed, with particular attention paid to the reproductive organs. A microscopic examination was performed on selected organs from five males and five females in the control- and high-dose groups, on liver, thymus, seminal vesicles and bone marrow from five males and/or five females in the low- and intermediate-dose groups and on all macroscopic lesions. The pups were sacrificed on Day 5 p.p. and submitted for a macroscopic post-mortem examination of the principal thoracic and abdominal organs. The read across substance concentrations checked during the study were within an acceptable range of variations when compared to the nominal values (± 15%). There was no read across substance in control formulations. There were no read across substance-related deaths. Clinical signs consisted of ptyalism in all animals at 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day and in most of the animals at 100 mg/kg bw/day (minor toxicological significance), as well as hypoactivity, loud breathing, piloerection and/or round back observed in a few animals at 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day for a few days (limited toxicological significance). There were no relevant effects on mean body weight, mean Functional Observation Battery (FOB), as well as on mean hematology parameters in any group and sex. An effect of the read across substance treatment on mean motor activity data at 300 and/or 1000 mg/kg bw/day was considered to be equivocal but of limited toxicological significance. In males, mean food consumption at 1000 mg/kg bw/day was reduced in the first week of treatment only (23 g/male/day, vs. 27, p<0.001). This effect was considered to be of limited toxicological significance. Mean food consumption in males at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day and in females were not affected. In females, mean cholesterol level was higher than in controls at 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day (up to 1.9 mmol/L, vs.1.2, p<0.01) and considered to be non-adverse in absence of adverse correlates in the study. There were no relevant blood biochemistry findings in females at 100 mg/kg bw/day or in males. At histopathology at 1000 mg/kg bw/day, minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy correlating with higher mean liver weight was seen in the liver of both sexes (about +28% in males and +20% in females compared to controls, p<0.01 generally). In females, mild lymphoid atrophy was seen in the thymus of 2/5 females, correlating with lower mean weight at necropsy (about -22% from controls). At 300 mg/kg bw/day, only minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy was seen in the liver of a single male correlating with minor higher mean absolute weight in this group. All these microscopic findings were considered to be non-adverse (low number of animals affected and/or minimal to slight grades). There were no histopathological effects at 100 mg/kg bw/day. Under the study conditions, the NOAEL for parent systemic toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day (Bentz, 2013).

Also, after discussion with ECHA in the frame of a Dossier Improvement Action Plan (DIAP), a combined repeated dose toxicity testing/reproductive and developmental screening according to OECD Guideline 422 is planned with C8-18 and C18-unsatd. MEA in order to obtain information on the substance itself and further support the read across approach proposed for the FAA category members. 

Oral (90 days)

A study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose oral toxicity of the read across substance, C12 DEA. The rats were administered read across substance concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2% in diet for 90 d. The animals were observed daily for clinical signs. Body weight were recorded weekly and haematological, clinical chemistry and urine examinations were carried out at termination. Gross and histopathological examinations were also performed at termination. No adverse effect on the appearance or condition of the animals was observed. Growth retardation was associated with diminished food intake from the dose level of 0.5%. Food refusal was demonstrably due to an effect of the test material on palatability of the diet. Terminal haematological examination revealed a reduction in the haemoglobin level, haematocrit and red cell count at the 1 and 2% dose levels in females but less pronounced effects were seen in males. Serum levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were elevated at 0.5% and above in females but only at 0.5 % in males. No untoward effect was observed in the renal function tests. The principal organ weight changes were: increases in the relative kidney weight in all test groups except at 0.1% in females and at 0.1 and 0.5% in males, and increases in the relative liver weight in females on the two highest levels. The types and incidence of histological lesions were comparable in control and test groups. Under the study conditions, the 90 d NOEL in rats was considered to be 0.1% in the diet, equivalent to 50 mg/kg bw/day (Gaunt, 1965).

A study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose oral toxicity of the read-across substance, C16 MEA, according to a design based on OECD Guideline 408, in compliance with GLP. Preliminary tests found that the test substance was suitable for oral gavage by suspension in water with Tween 80 (0.5% w/v) as a surfactant and carboxymethyl cellulose (1% w/v) as a suspending agent. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Four groups of 20 (10 males and 10 females) were treated for 90 d by oral gavage with the vehicle control, the low dose of 250 mg/kg bw/day, the mid dose of 500 mg/kg bw/day, or the high dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. An additional 10 animals (five males and five females) in the control and in the high-dose groups were allowed to recover for an additional 28 d. The following observations and examinations were performed: mortality (daily), clinical signs (weekly), functional observations and locomotor activity (end of treatment), body weight and food consumption (weekly), clinical pathology (end of treatment), ophthalmological examinations (before study initiation and at study termination), macroscopy at termination, organ weights and histopathology on a selection of tissues. There were some incidental findings that are concluded to be unrelated to treatment and of no toxicological significance. No treatment-related adverse effects were found up to the highest tested dose level of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. Under the study conditions, the 90 d NOEL was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day (Nestmann, 2016).

Additional considerations 

Based on an in-depth analysis of the available information (see read-across justification in Section 13 of the IUCLID dataset), it is the FAA consortium’s hypothesis that a read-across within and across MEA, DEA and MIPA derived alkanolamides is scientifically plausible and justified. While there is at this point no evidence putting the read-across hypothesis in question, the FAA consortium recognizes some limitations, predominantly related to the quality of individual endpoint studies (including quality of the test substance characterisations) and existing higher Tier endpoint data gaps. After discussion with ECHA in the frame of a Dossier Improvement Action Plan (DIAP), the FAA Consortium agrees to the need to strengthen the toxicology data-based link between and within the DEA, MEA and MIPA subcategories.

In view of this, the FAA Consortium decided to proceed with a 3-Tier testing strategy. In Tier 1, a series of bridging studies according to OECD TG 422 will be conducted with a representative short- and a long chain substance of each subcategory (i.e., DEA, MEA, MIPA).

The objective of Tier 2 will be to generate a complete set of higher toxicology data for a selected >1000 tpa substance (i.e., OECD TG 408/443/414 (rats)/414 (2cnd species). The testing in Tier 2 will be conducted with C8-18 and C18-unsatd. DEA, the substance that is generally perceived to be the most critical from a reproductive toxicity point of view based on the classification of DEA.

Tier 1 and 2 proposed studies have been included in the present dossier update. Should these suggest significant differences in type and strength of effects between the DEA, MEA and MIPA subcategories, therefore not supporting the current read across justification, further testing may be initiated. The Consortium’s strategy is detailed in a document entitled ‘ECHA-DIAP -FAA testing strategy summary – 24Sep20’ attached in Section 13 of the IUCLID dataset.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the results of oral repeated dose toxicity studies in rodents with the test substance and various read-across substances, the test substance does not warrant classification for this endpoint according to CLP (EC 1272/2008) criteria.