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Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

The key study was a study (Cheng et al, 2019) was carried out to assess the sub-lethal and reproductive effects of 4 -nonylphenol on Japanese quails (Corurnix japonica) over a 21 week time frame. The study was carried out according to the OECD guideline 206, but not according to the principals of GLP. A large number of parameters were assessed over the course of the experiment and at the end of the experiment. NOECs determined for male body weight, fertilisation rate, survival of newborn quails after 14 days, histopathology of male gonads were <10mg/kg diet; the NOEC for female body weight was 10mg/kg diet; the NOEC for number of eggs produced, egg shell thickness, number of broken eggs, sex ratios and female ovarian tissue were >50mg/kg diet; and the NOEC for hatching rate was 20 mg/kg diet. Overall, the study indicated potential effects of 4 -NP on quail reproduction at less than the lowest treatment concentration of 10mg/kg diet.

An additional study was included which also assessed the effect of the test substance on the japanese quail,Coturnix japonica,for 18 weeks period via drinking water to NP concentration of 0.1, 1, 10, 100µg/L NP.The study followed the OECD 206 "avian reproduction test" and it was reliable with restrictions (Klimisch 2) as no analytical monitoring of the concentration of NP in the drinking water was performed. A NOEC of 0.001 mg/L was determined for changes in the body weight of males, fertilization rate, hatchability and average of 14 d survival rate. A NOEC of 0.01mg/L was found for changes in weight of females during exposure and no effect was found up to the maximum concentration tested for reproductive parameters (8 weeks) and changing in the shell eggs thickness, determining a NOEC >0.1 mg/L. The feed consumption was also tested for 21 weeks, starting from the 18th weeks of exposure to NP. No detrimental effect was found.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for birds:
10 mg/kg food

Additional information

The key study by Cheng et al (2019) was a study carried out to assess the sub-lethal and reproductive effects of 4 -nonylphenol on Japanese quails (Corurnix japonica) over a 21 week time frame. The study was carried out according to the OECD guideline 206, but not according to the principals of GLP. The study included several deviations from the guidelines, including that the concentration in the feed was not verified. Several standard endpoints from the original guidelines were not included, however many of the suggested reproductive endpoints from the update 2018 guidelines were included. The experiment was separated into 5 phases, the acclimation phase, the initial phase, the second phase, the final phase and the withdraw phase. The quail were 14 days old at the start of the exposure period (initial 14 day acclimation phase). Of the 21 weeks, the quail were exposed to nonylphenol for 17 weeks via their feed (the initial phase, the second phase and the final phase), at three different exposure concentrations, 10, 20 and 50mg/kg diet, plus a control. A large number of parameters were assessed over the course of the experiment and at the end of the experiment. NOECs determined for male body weight, fertilisation rate, survival of newborn quails after 14 days, histopathology of male gonads were <10mg/kg diet; the NOEC for female body weight was 10mg/kg diet; the NOEC for number of eggs produced, egg shell thickness, number of broken eggs, sex ratios and female ovarian tissue were >50mg/kg diet; and the NOEC for hatching rate was 20 mg/kg diet. Overall, the study indicated potential effects of 4 -NP on quail reproduction at less than the lowest treatment concentration of 10mg/kg diet.

An additional study was included which also assessed the effect of the test substance on the japanese quail,Coturnix japonica,for 18 weeks periodvia drinking water to NP concentration of 0.1, 1, 10, 100µg/L NP.The study followed the OECD 206 "avian reproduction test" and it was reliable with restrictions (Klimisch 2) as no analytical monitoring of the concentration of NP in the drinking water was performed. A NOEC of 0.001 mg/L was determined for changes in the body weight of males, fertilization rate, hatchability and average of 14 d survival rate. A NOEC of 0.01mg/L was found for changes in weight of females during exposure and no effect was found up to the maximum concentration tested for reproductive parameters (8 weeks) and changing in the shell eggs thickness, determining a NOEC >0.1 mg/L. The feed consumption was also tested for 21 weeks, starting from the 18th weeks of exposure to NP. No detrimental effect was found.