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Environmental fate & pathways

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Endpoint:
other distribution data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2001-04-23
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This study is classified as reliable with restrictions because it is an acceptable, well-documented study report that follows sound scientific principles.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Unnamed
Report Date:
2001

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: Dutch Normalisation Institute and European Centre for Normalisation
Deviations:
not specified
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The static leach test chosen follows a Dutch standardised test for building materials, Dutch Normalisation Institute (1995) as far as possible.

The dynamic leach test was performed following a draft European test subsequently issued as 185CEN/TC292 (European Centre for Normalisation, 1999) using the ‘‘Zero Head Space Extractor’’ from Millipore, Bedford USA. The CEN test conditions are: size reduction of the sample to r4 mm, leaching with water acidified to pH 4, with a liquid solids ratio of 10 : 1, agitating for 30 h at 30 rpm.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of study:
soil leaching
Media:
other: bitumen in water

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Nine bitumen samples have been selected, comprising a representative range of commercially available products. In addition to the bitumens, one asphalt, made from one of the bitumens was tested.

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Bitumen is highly insoluble in water and when used in asphalt creates a matrix that locks in any potentially toxic components such as PAHs based on this static and dynamic leaching study. PAH levels were below 5 ng/L.
Executive summary:

Since the main applications of bitumen/asphalt is in the coating of surfaces, e.g. of roads, roofs, linings of water basins and pipes there are concerns that frequent contact with water will lead to the leaching of constituents from the bitumen/asphalt into the environment. To assess whether this was a significant concern Brandt and De Groot undertook a series of static and dynamic leaching tests to study the leaching behaviour of PAHs present in a number of bitumens as shown in Table below. 

 

Description of samples assessed in PAH leaching studies by Brandt and De Groot

 

Code

Description of bitumen/asphalt

A

Conventionalpenetration bitumen

B

Conventional Heavy Venezuelan penetration bitumen

C

Conventional Heavy Venezuelan penetration bitumen

D

Straight run vacuum residue oforigin

E

Deeply vacuum flashed conversion residue from a thermal cracker ex D

F

Conventionally blown roofing bitumen ex D

G

Conventionally blown roofing bitumen oforigin

H

Blown roofing bitumen of middle east origin

I

Multiphalte bitumen

 

The concentrations of PAHs in the bitumens and the leachates in the study by Brandt and De Groot have been summarised in the Table below. These data (normalised to µg/kg and µg/L) show that even though some individual PAHs are present in. mg/kg amounts in the bitumen, the plateau concentrations in the leachate are several orders of magnitude lower than would be anticipated on the basis of their water solubility alone. Furthermore, Brandt and De Groot determined that the equilibrium PAH concentrations in the leach water from bitumens see Table below were significantly below the surface water limits that exist in several European countries and were also more than an order of magnitude lower than the existing EU limits for potable water. For example, The benzo(a)pyrene concentrations determined in the leach water ranged from <0.015 to 0.3 ng/L compared to the limit of 10 ng/L stipulated by the EU drinking water Directive. As such their results indicate that leaching of PAHs from bitumens does not pose any significant risks to health or the environment.

 

PAH concentrations in bitumen vs plateau concentrations obtained in Brandt and De Groot leaching tests

 

PAH

Solubility µg/L

Log Kow

Bitumen A

Bitumen E

Bitumen G

Bitumen
µg/kg

Leachate
µg/L

Bitumen
µg/kg

Leachate
µg/L

Bitumen
µg/kg

Leachate
µg/L

Naphthalene

31000

3.3

2700

0.035

3000

30

2500

0.120

Acenaphthene

3900

3.92

200

0.0013

700

0.6

n.d.

0

Fluorene

1890

4.02

300

0.0021

400

0.8

400

0.011

Phenanthrene

1150

4.46

1800

0.0041

2000

3.3

1100

0.005

Anthracene

2.13

5.00

200

0.0001

200

0.5

100

0.0003

Fluoranthene

260

5.16

900

0.0004

800

0.1

300

0.0001

Pyrene

135

4.88

900

0.0004

1000

<0.00004

300

0.0003

Benz(a)anthracene

9.4

5.76

700

0.0001

200

<0.00005

n.d.

0.0001

Chrysene

2

5.81

2400

0.0003

1000

<0.00006

500

0.0001

Benzo(b)fluoranthene

1.5

5.78

1000

<0.00001

700

<0.00001

400

<0.00001

Benzo(k)fluoranthene

0.8

6.11

400

<0.00002

300

<0.00002

n.d.

<0.00002

Benzo(a)pyrene

1.62

6.13

700

<0.00002

500

<0.00002

n.d.

<0.00002

Dibenz(a,h)anthracene

1.03

6.54

500

<0.00004

300

<0.00004

n.d.

<0.00004

Benzo(g,h,i)perylene

2.491

6.7

2000

<0.00002

2000

<0.00002

800

<0.00002

Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene

0.36

7.57

500

<0.0001

200

<0.0001

n.d.

<0.0001

 

 



 Average plateau concentrations reached in static leach test, calculated from the concentrations in the samples taken after 9, 16, 36 and 64 days. Data from Brandt and De Groot - See Table above for description of samples assessed in their study

 

PAH determined

Plateau concentrations (ng/L) obtained in static leaching test for bitumens

Detection limit (ng/L)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

Naphthalene

35

371

51

175

30

Invalid

120

0.9

168

0.3

Acenaphthene

1.3

17

5

2.4

0.6

2.7

0

0.3

11

0.04

Fluorene

2.1

42

7

3.6

0.8

19.4

11

3.8

44

0.02

Phenanthrene

4.1

180

47

2.9

3.3

15.9

5

1.0

82

0.06

Anthracene

0.1

12

5

0.5

0.5

6.1

0.3

0.1

28

0.07

Fluoranthene

0.4

1.7

0.8

0.16

0.1

1.7

0.1

0.1

1

0.05

Pyrene

0.4

3.9

1.4

0.47

+

4.3

0.3

0.1

4

0.04

Benz(a)anthracene

0.1

1.4

0.45

0.04

+

0.5

0.1

+

+

0.05

Chrysene

0.3

5.3

0.83

0.13

+

0.5

0.1

+

+

0.06

Benzo(b)fluoranthene

+

0.4

0.14

0.01

+

+

+

+

+

0.01

Benzo(k)fluoranthene

+

0.2

0.14

+

+

+

+

+

+

0.02

Benzo(a)pyrene

+

0.1

0.3

+

+

+

+

+

+

0.02

Dibenz(a,h)anthracene

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

0.04

Benzo(g,h,i)perylene

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

0.02

Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

0.1

Coronene

0.03

0.05

0.09

0.04

0.01

+

+

+

0.03

0.03

Σ2+ring PAHs

8.8

263

68

10

5.9

51

17

5.4

172

-

Σ6WHO PAHs

0.43

2.33

1.38

0.17

0.08

1.7

0.07

0.07

1.47

-

Notes + = below the limit of detection.