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Toxicological information

Basic toxicokinetics

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
basic toxicokinetics
Type of information:
other: review
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Occupational aluminum exposure and its health effects.
Author:
Sjögren, B.; Elinder, CG.; Iregren, A.; McLachlan, DRC.; Riihimaki, V.
Year:
1997
Bibliographic source:
Yokel, RA.; Golub, MS., editors. Aluminum Toxicity. Washington DC.: Taylor & Francis; 1997. p. 165-183.
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Effect of different exposure compounds on urinary kinetics of aluminum and fluoride in industrially exposed workers
Author:
Pierre F., Baruthio F., Diebold F., Biette P.
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
Occup Environ Med 1995;52: p.396–403
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Serum and urinary aluminium levels of workers in the aluminium industry.
Author:
Gitelman HJ, Alderman FR, Kurs-Lasky M, Rockette HE.
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
Ann Occup Hyg 1995;39: p.181–191.
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
The biological behaviour and bioavailability of aluminium in man, with special reference to studies employing aluminium-26 as a tracer: review and study update.
Author:
Priest ND
Year:
2004
Bibliographic source:
J Environ Monitor 2004; 6: p. 375–403.
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Human metabolism of aluminium-26 and gallium-67 injected as citrates.
Author:
Priest ND, Newton D, Day JP, Talbot RJ, Warner AJ.
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
Hum Exp Toxicol 1995;14: p.287–293.

Materials and methods

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information): low bioaccumulation potential based on study results
The only data from which one can estimate the percentage of aluminium absorbed from inhalation exposure is from exposures in the occupational environment. As the percentage of aluminium estimated to be absorbed during inhalation exposure is greater than from oral aluminium intake, it seems unlikely that absorption from the GI tract accounts for the absorption of all inhaled aluminium.
The absorption of aluminium from the lung can be estimated from a few studies of occupational aluminium exposure. Daily urinary aluminium excretion by 12 aluminium welders, whose lung aluminium burden may have been approaching a steady state, averaged 0.1 mg. Daily aluminium deposition into their lungs was estimated to be 4.2 mg. This would suggest absorption of ~ 2.4% of the aluminium (Sjögren et al., 1997).
Results from workers exposed to ~ 0.2 to 0.5 mg soluble Al/m3 in the air (particle size not described) suggest ~ 2% absorption (Pierre et al., 1995). Fractional absorption was similar in the workers in a second study who were exposed to a similar air aluminium concentration containing 25% respirable (< 10 μm diameter) aluminium (Gitelman et al., 1995) The estimate of 26Al absorption from inhalation of 26Al oxide particles which had a MMAD of 1.2 μm by two subjects was 1.9% (Priest, 2004).

Executive summary:

The only data from which one can estimate the percentage of aluminium absorbed from inhalation exposure is from exposures in the occupational environment. As the percentage of aluminium estimated to be absorbed during inhalation exposure is greater than from oral aluminium intake, it seems unlikely that absorption from the GI tract accounts for the absorption of all inhaled aluminium.

The absorption of aluminium from the lung can be estimated from a few studies of occupational aluminium exposure. Daily urinary aluminium excretion by 12 aluminium welders, whose lung aluminium burden may have been approaching a steady state, averaged 0.1 mg. Daily aluminium deposition into their lungs was estimated to be 4.2 mg. This would suggest absorption of ~ 2.4% of the aluminium (Sjögren et al., 1997).

Results from workers exposed to ~ 0.2 to 0.5 mg soluble Al/m3 in the air (particle size not described) suggest ~ 2% absorption (Pierre et al., 1995). Fractional absorption was similar in the workers in a second study who were exposed to a similar air aluminium concentration containing 25% respirable (< 10 μm diameter) aluminium (Gitelman et al., 1995) The estimate of26Al absorption from inhalation of26Al oxide particles which had a MMAD of 1.2 μm by two subjects was 1.9% (Priest, 2004).