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In GLP and guideline studies using earthworms, SAS (pyrogenic, precipitated, gel, colloidal) showed no toxicity at exposures exceeding current maximum recommended test concentrations. The lowest NOECs for mortality and reproduction were at 50 g/kg soil (dw) and 25 g/kg soil (dw), respectively. At the effect levels (LC50s: 70 g/kg soil (dw) and higher; LOECs, reproduction: 50 g/kg soil(dw) and higher) the substrates were very dry and the effects secondary to exsiccosis (verified by histological examinatons).

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