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Toxicological information

Dermal absorption

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Administrative data

dermal absorption
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Mill scale is mainly and primarily composed of high-purity iron oxides (on average above 65%, i.e. FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4). Besides, other metal oxides and spinels, elements, and trace compounds such as oil residues <1% for all the uses except for batteries and Melting charge for which <3% can be found in the mill scale. More information on the justification of read across can be found in the attached document in the endpoint summarie of section 7.

Data source

Materials and methods

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Iron oxides
Iron oxides

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Data on dermal absorption only need to to be submitted in the context of REACH when available and it is not required to perform a dermal absorption study to address this endpoint. Anyhow, Iron oxides are practically insoluble in water, and hence, they will not pass through the skin. The aqueous layer of the skin is not acidic enough to give rise to the formation of iron ions. It has been demonstrated that even at rather low pH levels, the solubility is very low. Without the chemical conversion into soluble iron ions, systemic exposure will be negligible, and toxicologically insignificant. Moreover, dermal contact with rust, that contains several iron oxides, is a common feature of everyday life for humans for thousands of years and no toxicity has been so far reported (see also the read-across statement attached to overall summary "Toxicological information").