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Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to other aquatic organisms

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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Two studies that looked at potential adverse effects of iron on aquatic vertebrates were identified. Khangarot et al (1985) investigated adverse effects of iron on the frog Rana hexadactyla, whereas Shuhaimi et al (2012) used the toad Duttaphrynus melanosticus as test species.



Khangarot et al (1985) only provided a limited description of the test design and results appear to be based on nominal effect levels with no suggestion that analytical work was conducted to assess whether actual total concentration levels are adequately represented by nominal values, or what was the dissolved Fe-concentration.


The study that was reported by Shuhaimi et al (2012) was conducted in a scientifically acceptable way, but due to some deficiencies in the reporting and age/origin of the test organisms, the results were not be considered as a key value. One of the concerns with this study is that water samples were acidified prior to analysis without giving indication whether or not samples were filtered. It is therefore not clear whether reported (no)-effect levels refer to total or dissolved concentrations.

Additional information