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EC number: 215-175-0
CAS number: 1309-64-4
The lowest valid NOEC for chronic toxicity to freshwater fish is 1.13 mg Sb/L for Pimephales promelas. (Kimball, 1978).
There are no valid chronic studies with marine fish.
Only two studies are considered to be valid
(Kimball, 1978 and LeBlanc and Dean, 1984). However, only Kimball can be
used to derive a PNEC since the NOECs reported by LeBlanc and Dean are
LeBlanc and Dean (1984) exposed eggs from Pimephales
promelas in a flow-through system, using two replicates, with five
concentrations (range: 0.6 - 7.5 µg Sb/L) and two controls (one regular
and one vehicle control (HCl)), with each replicate comprising 55 eggs.
The tests were performed in well water with a hardness of 28-40 mg CaCO3/L.
Since there were no statistically different effects (endpoints:
mortality, larvae lengths and weights) when compared to the control,
even at the highest concentration used (7.5 µg Sb/L), the resulting
unbounded NOEC value was > 7.5 µg Sb/L.
A chronic test performed by Kimball (1978),
used embryo-larvae of Pimephales promelas in a flow-through
system, with four replicates and six concentrations (range: 0.52 – 19.11
mg Sb/L) and a control, with each group comprising 20 eggs. The tests
were performed with hard well water. The lowest resulting NOEC from this
study, using reduction of length as an indicator of toxicity, is 1.13 mg
Sb/L. This value is also the lowest valid NOEC for freshwater fish from
long-term toxicity tests.
There are studies by Birge and co-workers
(Birge, 1978; Birge et al., 1980), which report NOECs below 1.13 mg
Sb/l. However, even though these studies are well performed, with
measured test concentrations etc., neither of them are considered to be
valid. The reason for this is that the test concentrations used are
never reported, which makes it impossible to determine whether the
calculated NOEC values are included in the tested concentration range.
The reasons why the result by Doe et al.(1987)
on Oncorhynchus mykiss is not considered reliable are presented
in the section on acute toxicity above.
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