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Particle size distribution (Granulometry)

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Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
10/03/2010 - 10/03/2010
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study according to international guideline (EC ECB/TM/Feb. 1996) under GLP. No deviations from guideline reported.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: •EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Directorate General XII-JRC, Science Research and Development-Joint Research Centre. “Particle Size Distribution, Fibre Length and Diameter Distribution” Guidance Document, ECB/TM/February 1996.
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not relevant
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Type of method:
Laser scattering/diffraction
Type of distribution:
volumetric distribution
Key result
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
20.9 µm
Remarks on result:
other: range between 0.3 and 200 um (migrated from fields under 'Mass median diameter' as D50 percentile. No source field for Standard deviation.)
Percentile:
other: D5
Mean:
< 3 µm
St. dev.:
0.353
Percentile:
D10
Mean:
< 4.8 µm
St. dev.:
0.605
Percentile:
D50
Mean:
< 20.9 µm
St. dev.:
0.634
Percentile:
D90
Mean:
< 43.1 µm
St. dev.:
1.884

For detailed results (distribution of different passages) see attached file results.doc.

Steam Activated Carbon is a black powder. Under the microscope (with a magnification of 100), small-sized particles were observed.

 

A solubility test showed, that the test item is both: sparingly soluble and well dispersible in water. The particle size distribution of Steam Activated Carbon was performed with two samples of the stock dispersion each measured in duplicate.

The results obtained during the measurements showed no relevant difference. Therefore the study is considered to be valid and no further testing is necessary.

Conclusions:
The mass median diameter (MMD) of steam activated carbon is 20.9 µm, the particle size distribution ranges from 0.5 to 250.0 µm.
Executive summary:

The particle size distribution of steam activated carbon was determined according to "EC ECB/TM/Feb. 1996" using the laser diffraction method. The mass median diameter (MMD) of steam activated carbon was found to be 20.9 µm, the particle size distribution was found to range from approximately 0.5 to 250.0 µm.

Endpoint:
particle size distribution (granulometry)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Non-GLP study according to international Guidelines
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: EN 15051, Workplace atmospheres – Measurement of the dustiness of bulk materials – Requirements and reference test methods. Method B "continuous drop"
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: DIN 33897-2 "continuous drop"
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
not applicable
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
continuous drop method
Type of distribution:
mass based distribution
Key result
Percentile:
other: respirable concentration
Mean:
0.14
St. dev.:
1.58
Remarks on result:
other: The geometric mean of the respirable concentration equals 0.14 mg/m3 and the reliability that the respirable concentration is below 0.61 mg/m3 is 95 %.
No.:
#1
Size:
13 807 - 88 272 other: mg/kg
Remarks on result:
other: Sample 11029: Respirable - Inhalable dust fractions
No.:
#2
Size:
1 524 - 43 301 other: mg/kg
Remarks on result:
other: Sample 11032: Respirable - Inhalable dust fractions
No.:
#3
Size:
2 033 - 47 621 other: mg/kg
Remarks on result:
other: Sample 11037: Respirable - Inhalable dust fractions
No.:
#4
Size:
2 995 - 47 038 other: mg/kg
Remarks on result:
other: Sample 11038: Respirable - Inhalable dust fractions
No.:
#5
Size:
2 862 - 41 499 other: mg/kg
Remarks on result:
other: Sample 11040: Respirable - Inhalable dust fractions
No.:
#6
Size:
2 128 - 41 393 other: mg/kg
Remarks on result:
other: Sample 11045: Respirable - Inhalable dust fraction
No.:
#7
Size:
2 317 - 46 190 other: mg/kg
Remarks on result:
other: Sample 11046: Respirable - Inhalable dust fractions
No.:
#8
Size:
3 074 - 39 379 other: mg/kg
Remarks on result:
other: Sample 11048: Respirable - Inhalable dust fractions
Results

Based on the test results of a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with Activated Carbon (AC-HDS) a DNELInhalation, long term local, workerof 0.61 mg/m3 has been derived for the respirable fraction (see chapter 7).

The dustiness was determined in 8 representative samples of activated carbon. The results of these measurements and the calculated respirable / inhalable fractions are presented in Table 1.

The geometric mean of the respirable/inhalable ratio is 6.16 * 10-2, and the geometric standard deviation is 1.58 (see Table 2). It was concluded that the test results form an adequately uniform dataset. Evaluation of PSD data (see attachment) from each of the activated carbon samples demonstrated that sample 11029 could not be regarded as an outlier and was therefore included in the dataset. The calculations show that when using an inhalable DNEL of 2.3 mg/m3, the geometric mean of the respirable fraction equals 0.14 mg/m3 and the reliability that the respirable fraction is below 0.61 mg/m3 is 95 %.


Table1Results of respirable and inhalable dust fraction and the calculated respirable / inhalable fraction

Sample number

Respirable dust fraction (mg/kg)

Inhalable dust fraction (mg/kg)

Respirable / inhalable ratio of Activated Carbon

11029

13807

88272

0.156

11032

1524

43301

0.035

11037

2033

47621

0.043

11038

2995

47038

0.064

11040

2862

41499

0.069

11045

2128

41393

0.051

11046

2317

46190

0.050

11048

3074

39379

0.078

 

Table2Determination of the Inhalable DNEL based on the respirable/inhalable ratio of activated carbon

Sample number

Respirable / inhalable ratio of Activated Carbon

Respirable concentration (mg/m3) if Inhalable concentration

= 2.3 mg/m3

11029

0.156

0.36

11032

0.035

0.08

11037

0.043

0.10

11038

0.064

0.15

11040

0.069

0.16

11045

0.051

0.12

11046

0.050

0.12

11048

0.078

0.18

GM

6.16E-02

0.14

GSD

1.58

1.58

Reliability, respirable fraction < 0.61mg/m3

 

95.1%

Conclusions:
When using a representative set of 8 different samples of activated carbon, the statistical calculations show that when using an inhalable DNEL of 2.3 mg/m3, the geometric mean of the respirable fraction equals 0.14 mg/m3 and the reliability that the respirable fraction is below 0.61 mg/m3 is 95 %.
Executive summary:

Based on the test results of a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with Activated Carbon (AC-HDS) a DNELInhalation, long term local, workerof 0.61 mg/m3 has been derived for the respirable fraction (see chapter 7).

The dustiness was determined in 8 representative samples of activated carbon and the respirable / inhalable fractions were calculated.

The geometric mean of the respirable/inhalable ratio was 6.16 * 10-2, and the geometric standard deviation was 1.58. It was concluded that the test results form an adequately uniform dataset. The calculations show that when using an inhalable DNEL of 2.3 mg/m3, the geometric mean of the respirable fraction equals 0.14 mg/m3 and the reliability that the respirable fraction is below 0.61 mg/m3 is 95 %.

Description of key information

mass median diametre 20,9 micrometre µm

Additional information

PSD

In a key study, the particle size distribution of Activated Carbon - High Density Skeleton was determined according to "EC ECB/TM/Feb. 1996" using the laser diffraction method. The mass median diameter (MMD) of steam activated carbon was found to be 20.9µm, the particle size distribution was found to range from approximately 0.5 to 250.0µm.

Detailed results:

Percentile

Mean

St. dev.

other: D5

< 3 µm

0.353

D10

< 4.8 µm

0.605

D50

< 20.9 µm

0.634

D90

< 43.1 µm

1.884

Dustiness

Based on the test results of a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with Activated Carbon (AC-HDS) a DNELInhalation, long term local, workerof 0.61 mg/m3 has been derived for the respirable fraction (see chapter 7).

The dustiness was determined in 8 representative samples of activated carbon and the respirable / inhalable fractions were calculated.

The geometric mean of the respirable/inhalable ratio was 6.16 * 10-2, and the geometric standard deviation was 1.58. It was concluded that the test results form an adequately uniform dataset. The calculations show that when using an inhalable DNEL of 2.3 mg/m3, the geometric mean of the respirable fraction equals 0.14 mg/m3 and the reliability that the respirable fraction is below 0.61 mg/m3 is 95 %.