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Manufacture, use & exposure

Manufacture

Documentsopen allclose all

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting

Manufacture

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Tungsten Carbide
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Reference substance:
Tungsten Carbide
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacture of tungsten carbide powder
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 3:
Step 2: Blending
Step 6: Deagglomeration
Step 8: Mixing (optional)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 1: Transfer to mixer
Step 3: Transfer to furnace
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 8b:
Step 5: Transfer to deagglomerator
Step 7: Transfer to mixer
Step 10: Maintenance and cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 9: Filling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 4: Carburization or furnace operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Recycling of tungsten caribde-containing scrap
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Step 1: Scrap handling - tungsten carbide-containing scrap materials are received in sealed metal drums and transferred into the next process step. None or limited dust exposure during the operation.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation - tungsten carbide-containing scrap materials are processed by mechanical methods (eg crushing, mixing). The mixing and blending operation occurs in a closed system.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Step 3: Transfer to recycling unit - Unloading the mixer and transporting the material to the furnace (several types of furnaces can be used). Limited dust exposure by the operation.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 4:Chemical recycling (OPTIONAL)
1) Oxidation: Heating of tungsten carbide-containing scrap under oxidising conditions in a furnace at temperatures around 800 °C in a closed system.
2) Leaching: Selective dissolution of cobalt (binder) by acid, leach milling or electrolysis.
- Very limited amounts by the gas flow.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 5: Mechanical recycling (zinc or cold stream)
1) Zinc: crushed material is treated in molten zinc or zinc vapour at temperatures between 900 - 1050°C in an Ar/N2 atmosphere in a closed system.
2) Coldstream process: the sorted and cleaned hardmetal pieces are cooled then blasted onto a hard surface using high velocity streams of cooled air in a closed system.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 6: Transfer to milling after mechanical recycling. Mechanically treated material is transferred to a mill. None or limited dust exposure during the operation.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 7: Milling - Homogenisation of the material in a closed system.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 8: Filling - The tungsten carbide (WC) powder is filled into closed containers. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 9: Maintenance and cleaning - The WC powder is filled into closed containers. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR but not a lead’s own use

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Recycling of tungsten carbide containing scrap
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 1:
Step 4:Chemical recycling (OPTIONAL)
Step 5: Mechanical recycling (zinc or cold stream)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 7: Milling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 8b:
Step 1: Scrap handling
Step 3: Transfer to recycling unit
Step 6: Transfer to milling after mechanical recycling
Step 9: Maintenance and cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 8: Filling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacture of tungsten carbide powder
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Step 1: Tungsten (W) metal powder is transferred from the transport containers into a mixer. Carbon black is filled into the mixer. Exposure to W metal dust possible.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Blending - Mixing of Tungsten metal powder with carbon black in a closed system.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 3: Transfer to furnace - The powder blend is unloaded from the mixer and transferred to the furnace hopper. Alternatively, it is unloaded into special containers for batch carburization. The tungsten and carbon black powder blend is fed into the furnace or furnace boats. Alternatively, the special containers are loaded into the batch furnace. Exposure to W and C or W metal dust possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 4: Carburization or furnace operation - The W and C powder blend is carburized to tungsten carbide at elevated temperature in the furnace in a protective atmosphere (eg H2 or N2). Limited worker exposure data available.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Step 5: Transfer to deagglomerator - The tungsten carbide (WC) powder is unloaded from the furnace and transferred to a deagglomerator. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 6: Deagglomeration - The tungsten carbide (WC) powder is deagglomerated in one or more processes, not necessarily enclosed. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying, filling and handling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 7: Transfer to mixer - The tungsten carbide (WC) powder is unloaded from the deagglomerator and transferred to a mixer. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 8: Mixing (optional) - Homogenisation of the material in a closed system. Exposure not expected.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 9: Filling - The tungsten carbide (WC) powder is filled into closed containers. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 10: Maintenance and cleaning - Various maintenance and cleaning operations inside and outside the equipment. Exposure to tungsten and tungsten carbide powders possible.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR but not a lead’s own use

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacture of tungsten carbide powder
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 3:
Step 2: Blending
Step 6: Deagglomeration
Step 8: Mixing (optional)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 1: Transfer to mixer
Step 3: Transfer to furnace
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 8b:
Step 5: Transfer to deagglomerator
Step 7: Transfer to mixer
Step 10: Maintenance and cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 9: Filling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 4: Carburization or furnace operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Manufacture

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant

Referenceopen allclose all

Name:
Tungsten Carbide
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Reference substance:
Tungsten Carbide
Name:
tungsten carbide
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Reference substance:
tungsten carbide
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Recycling of tungsten carbide containing scrap
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 1:
Step 4:Chemical recycling (OPTIONAL)
Step 5: Mechanical recycling (zinc or cold stream)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 7: Milling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 8b:
Step 1: Scrap handling
Step 3: Transfer to recycling unit
Step 6: Transfer to milling after mechanical recycling
Step 9: Maintenance and cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 8: Filling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR but not a lead’s own use