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Environmental fate & pathways

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Cenospheres are not bioavailable for aquatic organisms due to its physical chemicals properties as inert, hollow balls of sand-like material; therefore a bioaccumulation potential can be excluded.

Additionally, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) initiated multi-phase laboratory toxicity studies in March 2009 to evaluate potential risks to biota from exposure to fly ash including cenospheres from the ash release to the river and subsequent dredging. Results from a „A Multi-phased Toxicity Study for Evaluating Potential Risks of Kingston Fossil Plant Fly Ash Exposure to Benthic and Aquatic Biota“ ash composite samples indicated no appreciable bioaccumulation of Ash including cenospheres (R. Sherrard; Poster, SETAC, 2009)