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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Environmental fate & pathways

Monitoring data

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Administrative data

monitoring data
Type of information:
other: Review
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This monitoring data is part of a review paper on forest decline research in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is a secondary source and is therefore given a Klimisch reliability rating of 4. No data is provided on material and methods.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study

Data source

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline available
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of measurement:
background concentration
other: Air and biota (Norway spruce needles)

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sulphur dioxide
EC Number:
EC Name:
Sulphur dioxide
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Sulphur dioxide generated from sulphur by combustion

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

At mean air concentrations of 26 µg/m3 and 17.5 µg/m3, the S content in the needles was measured to 1550 mg/kg dw and 1150 mg/kg in the years 1978 and 1985, respectively (values taken from a graph).

The results of continuous measurements of SO2 in the atmosphere show high SO2 pollution in northeastern Bavaria just in the corner where the FRG, the German Democratic Republic and Czechoslovakian borders meet; however the SO2 load in southern Bavaria is negligible.

(The S concentrations in spruce needles,as monitored along a grid pattern in Bavaria, exactly reflect the SO2 pollution with elevated concentrations in northeastern Bavaria, and very low levels in southern Bavaria as well as in southern parts of BadenWuerttemberg [2,54].)

The averageSO2 concentrations in the atmosphere (as well as the S contents in the spruce foliage) in Bavaria, continuously decreased from 1978 to 1985 [54]. (See Attached Figure 1.)

The monitoring of Sulfate-S in the throughfall of spruce forests in southern Germany also revealed a considerable regional variation, ranging from 12 to 60 kg/ha. [22]

In the central Alps of the Tyrol, where serious defoliation occurs, the S deposition is even smaller [60] and consequently, the S concentrations of spruce needles there are at a very low level.

In contrast the deposition of S in throughfall in the Solling area in northern Germany amounts to 80 kg/ha.a, but the beech and spruce stands there are rather healthy.

Applicant's summary and conclusion