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Toxicological information

Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Quantification of exposure is not possible, however findings are consistent and the conclusion is clear

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
other: review
Title:
European Union Risk Assessment Report: chromium trioxide, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, ammonium dichromate and potassium dichromate
Author:
European Chemicals Bureau
Year:
2005
Bibliographic source:
3rd. Priority List; Volume 53

Materials and methods

Study type:
other: studies and reports summarised in an EU review
Endpoint addressed:
eye irritation
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Review of published reports of accidental/occupational exposure
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Not applicable

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Chromium trioxide
EC Number:
215-607-8
EC Name:
Chromium trioxide
Cas Number:
1333-82-0
Molecular formula:
CrO3
IUPAC Name:
Trioxochromium
Constituent 2
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium chromate
EC Number:
231-889-5
EC Name:
Sodium chromate
Cas Number:
7775-11-3
Molecular formula:
CrH2O4.2Na
IUPAC Name:
disodium dioxido(dioxo)chromium
Constituent 3
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium dichromate
EC Number:
234-190-3
EC Name:
Sodium dichromate
Cas Number:
10588-01-9
Molecular formula:
Cr2Na2O7
IUPAC Name:
disodium [(oxidodioxochromio)oxy]chromiumoylolate dihydrate
Constituent 4
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Potassium dichromate
EC Number:
231-906-6
EC Name:
Potassium dichromate
Cas Number:
7778-50-9
Molecular formula:
Cr2H2O7.2K
IUPAC Name:
potassium dichromate
Details on test material:
The EU RAR covers the folloiwng water soluble hexavalent chromium compounds:

chromium trioxide
sodium chromate
sodium dichromate
ammonium dichromate
potassium dichromate

Method

Subjects:
Various reports of occupational accidental exposure
Route of exposure:
ocular
Reason of exposure:
unintentional, occupational
Exposure assessment:
not specified

Results and discussion

Clinical signs:
Significant damage to the eye can occur upon accidental exposure to highly water-soluble Cr (VI) compounds.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Accidental splashing of highly water-soluble Cr(VI) compounds in solution into the eye has resulted in damage to the human eye. A number of case reports have detailed both inflammation of the cornea and conjunctivae and in more severe cases, corneal erosion and ulceration. The severity of response is increased by low pH or high temperature. Accidental eye contact with the corrosive aqueous chromium (VI) trioxide results in conjunctival congestion and necrosis and corneal oedema and opacity.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Accidental exposure to Cr (VI) compounds has the potential to cause irritation and damage to the eye.
Executive summary:

The reports reviewed in the EU RAR show that accidental occupational exposure of the eye to Cr (VI) compounds can cause irritation and damage.