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Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Health surveillance data

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Administrative data

health surveillance data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003 - 2006
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment.

Data source

Reference Type:
Levels and predictors of urinary nickel concentrations of children in Germany: results from the German Environmental Survey on children (GerES IV).
Wilhelm M, Wittsiepe J, Seiwert M, Hünken A, Becker K, Conrad A, Schulz C, Kolossa-Gehring M.
Bibliographic source:
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013 216(2):163-9.

Materials and methods

Study type:
biological exposure monitoring
Endpoint addressed:
other: Urinary nickel levels in German children
Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Assessment of internal nickel exposure via urinary nickel measurement and identification of possible predictors.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
environmental nickel
environmental nickel
Details on test material:
Nickel exposure from food, water, and ambient (environmental) airborne levels. Bulk of exposure (from food) claimed as soluble nickel by authors.


Type of population:
other: volunteers (school children)
Ethical approval:
confirmed, but no further information available
Details on study design:
The German Environmental Survey on children (GerES IV) 2003-2006 provided representative data to describe the internal nickel exposure of children aged 3-14 years in Germany via nickel measurement in urine.

Results and discussion

Concentrations of nickel in urine ranged from below 0.5 ug/1 to 15 ug/1. The geometric mean and the 95th percentile concentrations were 1.26 and 4.50 ug/1 respectively. Urinary nickel levels for the sub-groups defined by gender, age and SES are also summarized in Table 1. Geometric means did not differ between boys and girls (1.27 and 1.26 ug/1). For the different age groups, geometric means were highest in the children aged 3-5 years (1.40 ug/1), values decreased to 1.34 (6-8 years) and 1.14 ug/1 (9-11 years), and then increased again (1.23 ug/1) in children aged 12-14years. Nickel levels were lower in children with higher SES compared to children with low or medium SES ( 1.11 ug/1 and 1.33 ug/1 respectively). Geometric mean of children who were overweight gender and age 90th BMI percentile was lower compared to those who were not overweight (1.14 and 1.29 ug/l; p

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

Study was rated by an independent reviewer.