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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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The conduct of a chronic toxicity study on aquatic invertebrates with the target substance titanium oxychloride itself is being waived, as the substance is highly unstable in water and produces insoluble oxide after rapid hydrolysis. Nevertheless, taking aside potentially occurring pH effects (not relevant for the assessment), it can be concluded that neither the parent compound titanium tetrachloride, nor the target compound titanium oxychloride nor the final hydrolysis transformation products (namely titanium dioxide) exhibit long term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

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The conduct of a chronic toxicity study on aquatic invertebrateswith the target substance itself is being waived, as the substance is highly unstable in water and produces insoluble oxide after rapid hydrolysis. Thus the aquatic hazard assessment is to be based on the transformation products. As pH effects are not true toxic effects and not relevant for assessment and as the chlorides are present in high natural background concentrations, the assessment bases on titanium dioxide.

The assumption of absent chronic invertebrate toxicity of titanium dioxide is supported by the low bioaccumulation tendency (Frederici et al 2007), the absence of acute toxicity at high loading rates, and by the experimental data of Beim et al (1982). The experiment is not sufficiently documented but it evidences the absence of chronic effect to reproduction of daphnids up to 100 mg/L loading rate. This is five orders of magnitude higher than the water solubility of the test item titanium dioxide. Finally, titanium dioxide is virtually insoluble in water (< 1 µg/L).

It is concluded that neither the target compound titanium oxychloride, nor parent compound titanium tetrachloride, nor the final hydrolysis transformation products titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid (in its neutralised form) exhibit chronic effects to aquatic invertebrates at the level of their water solubility in addition with undissolved microdisperse matter in excess, even if ingested.

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