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Toxicological information

Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other
Type of information:
other: human data
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
no data available
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well reported case of occupational exposure.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Baritosis - Report of a Case
Author:
Pendergrass, E.P.; Greening, R.R.
Year:
1953
Bibliographic source:
Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occ. Med. 7, 44-48

Materials and methods

Study type:
poisoning incident
Endpoint addressed:
repeated dose toxicity: inhalation
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A worker was exposed for about 1.5 hours/day to barites and anthracite coal wearing a respirator. Analysis of the ground material was done. Exposure to a particle count of 6,000,000,000 particles per cubic foot of air was determined. The worker was examined two times by roentgenogram and autopsy was done after his dead, including gross and microscopic examination of the lung and heart.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Barium sulfate
EC Number:
231-784-4
EC Name:
Barium sulfate
Cas Number:
7727-43-7
Molecular formula:
BaO4S
IUPAC Name:
barium sulfate
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): finely divided particles of barium sulfate
- Physical state: solid
No further details are given.

Method

Type of population:
occupational
Subjects:
- Number of subjects exposed: 1
- Sex: male
- Age: >50
Ethical approval:
not specified
Route of exposure:
inhalation
Reason of exposure:
other: accidential at work place
Exposure assessment:
measured
Details on exposure:
Analysis of the ground material at workplace showed from 95 to 97% barium sulfate and from 1.3 to 3.5% silica. Analysis of the air-floated dust sample revealed barium (49.1%), sulfur as SO3 (28.3%), silica (2.1%) and carbon (9.9%). No free silica was found in any of the samples examined.
Wearing a respirator, the man had been exposed for about 1.5 hours per day to a particle count of 6,000,000,000 particles per cubic foot of air. For 1 hour per day he worked where there was a particle count of 1,700,000,000 particles per cubic foot of air.
Examinations:
One routine roentgenogram of the worker's chest was made. The next examination was made 9 years later. At that time the worker presented himself for examination because of repeated attcks of substernal discomfort.
12 years after the second examination, the worker (71 years old) died and an autopsy was performed.
Medical treatment:
no data

Results and discussion

Clinical signs:
For data on clinical signs see below "results of examinations".
Results of examinations:
The first roentgenogram revealed some fine nodulation throughout both lungs. Baritosis was detected by roentgenogram. At the time of the second examination, the worker had repeated attacks of substernal discomfort and "effort" pain, which condition was relieved somewhat by rest. It was suspected that he might have suffered a coronary occlusion, although the EKG findings were consistent with only some myocardial damage and did not reveal evidence of actual infarction.
At the age of 71 the worker had again a sudden severe attack of substernal pain and died. At autopsy, examination of the lungs revealed a gray-blue appearance of the surface. There were diffuse and various-sized, firm, discrete nodules throughout each lung. The diagnosis from the studies and examinations was pneumoconiosis, anthracosilicosis and baritosis.
Effectivity of medical treatment:
no data
Outcome of incidence:
The worker died.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The diagnosis from the examinations at autopsy of a worker exposed several years to barium sulfate particles by inhalation was pneumoconiosis, anthracosilicosis and baritosis.