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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

I. Actual measurements in process water

Standard batch reaction vessels are charged with 2000kg of materials. This consists of 1200kg of water, a total of 750kg of monomers and c.a. 50kg or less of additives. In the case of the GMA copolymer the level of GMA was 1% which means that 7.5kg of GMA was charged into the vessel. Assuming 50ppm GMA in waste water (detection limit) this equates to 0.06kg of GMA (at worst) or a release factor of 0.008.

II OECD SIDS for glycidyl methacrylate, December 1999, section Environment , adapted

 3. ENVIRONMENT

 3.1 Environmental Exposure

3.1.1 General Discussion

Glycidyl methacrylate is readily biodegradable (OECD 301C: 100 % after 28d) and readily hydrolyzed (T1/2= 2.83, 3.66 and 2.22 day at pH 4, 7, and 9, respectively). At these pH’s the main hydrolysis product was 2,3-dihydroxypropylmethacrylate (EINECS 227-642-6) as a result of opening of the epoxide-ring. In another study the results were T1/2= 1.9, 4.1 and 0.054 day at pH 3, 7 and 11 respectively. In this study at pH 3 and 7 the main hydrolysis product was the same. However, at pH=11 the main hydrolysis products were methacrylic acid and glycidol (as a result of saponification of the ester).

Direct photodegradation is not expected because glycidyl methacrylate has no absorption band in the UV and VIS region.

As the initial concentration in OECD 301C is 100 mg/l, the NOAEL was also 100 mg/l. Thus the PNEC (STP) is with an assessment factor of 10 10 mg/l

Glycidyl methacrylate is low bioaccumulative based on Log Pow (0.96 at 25 °C).

The potential environmental distribution of glycidyl methacrylate obtained from a generic Mackay level III fugacity model is shown in Table a. Parameters used for this model are shown as Annex to the attacched OECD SIDS report. The results show that, if glycidyl methacrylate is released into water or soil, it is unlikely to be distributed into other compartments. If glycidyl methacrylate is released into air, it is likely to be distributed in other compartments.

Table a

Environmental distribution of glycidyl methacrylate

Using a generic level III fugacity model.

Compartment

Release 100% to air

Release 100% to water

Release 100% to soil

Air

14.8 %

0.003 %

0.1 %

Water

21.4 %

99.8 %

19.0 %

Soil

63.7 %

0.01 %

80.8 %

Sediment

0.04 %

0.19 %

0.04 %

 

As this chemical is produced, handled and used in closed system under very well controlled conditions as a monomer unit of polymers or an intermediate of further chemical products and is not included in consumer products, its release to the environment may occur only from the production site.

3.1.2 Predicted Environmental Concentration

As glycidyl methacrylate is produced, handled and used under very well controlled conditions in closed systems, amount of release to air phase is negligibly small. The waste of glycidyl methacrylate from the production system is released to the water phase after treatment in its own wastewater treatment plant. Therefore, Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) will be calculated only for the water environment.

Regional exposure

(a) According to report from a Japanese manufacturer (A), 3.3 tonnes/year (measured) of glycidyl methacrylate are released with 5.35 x 109 L/year of effluent into river. Local Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEClocal) is calculated to be 6.2 x 10-3 mg/L as a worst case scenario, employing the following calculation model and dilution factor of 100.

                       Amount of release (3.3 x 109 mg/y) / [Volume of effluent (5.35 x 109L/y) x Dilution Factor (100)]

(b) According to report from a Japanese manufacturer (B), 1.62 tonnes/year (measured) of glycidyl

methacrylate are released with 9.1 x 10+9 L/year of effluent into river which has flow rate of 1.82 x

10+11L/year at dry season. Local Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEClocal) is calculated to be

8.9 x 10-3 mg/L as a worst case scenario, employing the following calculation model and dilution

factor of 20.

Amount of release (1.62 x 10+9 mg/y) / [Volume of effluent (9.1 x 10+9 L/y) x Dilution Factor (20)]

3.2 Effects on the Environments

3.2.1 Effects on aquatic organisms

Acute and chronic toxicity data of glycidyl methacrylate to aquatic organisms are summarized in

Table b. All tests were conducted by a GLP-laboratory. As the lowest acute and chronic toxicity

data, 14d LC50 of O. latipes and 21 d NOEC (reproduction) of D. magna were selected, respectively

(Table b). An assessment factor of 100 was chosen and applied to the chronic toxicity data to

determine PNEC, because chronic toxicity data for fish were not available. Thus, PNEC (aqua-freshwater) of gycidyl

methacrylate is 0.01 mg/l, and the PNEC (aqua-marinewater) 0.001 mg/l.

Table b.

Acute and chronic toxicity data of glycidyl methacrylate to aquatic organisms at different trophic levels.

Species

Endpoint

Conc. (mg/l)

Remarks

Selenastrum capricornutum(algae)

Bms 72h EC50 Do. 72h NOEC

14.6 3.2

a, 1) c, 1)

Daphnia magna(Water flea)

Imm 24h EC50 Imm 48h EC50 Rep 21d EC50 Rep 21d NOEC

42.3 24.9 3.2 1.02

a, 1) c, 1), c, 1) c, 1), C

Oryzias latipes(fish, Medaka)

Mor 24h LC50 Mor 48h LC50 Mor 72h LC50 Mor 96h LC50 Mor 14d LC50

12.9 5.7 3.7 2.8 1.9

a, 1) a, 1) a, 1) a, 1), a, 1), A

 Notes: Bms; growth measure by biomass change, Imm; immobilization, Mor; mortality, Rep; reproduction,

1); reference number, A), C); the lowest values of the acute (a) or chronic (c) toxicity data among algae, cladocera (water flea) and fishes.

References; 1) Environment Agency of Japan (1997) 

3.2.2 Terrestrial effects

No data available

3.2.3 Other effects

No data available

3.3 Initial Assessment for the Environment

Glycidyl methacrylate is readily biodegradable and readily hydrolyzed. This chemical seems to

have a low bioaccumulation potential judging from a low log Pow value. The lowest toxicity values were 1.9 mg/l (14d LC50 of fish Medaka; O. latipes; this study had an NOEC of 1.2 mg/l) and 1.02 mg/l (21 d NOEC of D. magna), respectively.

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