Registration Dossier

Environmental fate & pathways

Monitoring data

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Endpoint:
monitoring data
Type of information:
other: report
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2005
Report date:
2005
Reference Type:
other: GEMAS database
Title:
Chemistry of Europe’s agricultural soils - Part A: Methodology and interpretation of the GEMAS data set.
Author:
Reimann et al.
Year:
2014
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2021
Report date:
2021

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline required
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Evaluation and summary of high quality environmental geochemical data for Europe, which is provided by the Forum of European Geological Surveys (FOREGS) and the European Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil (GEMAS), with respect to chromium concentrations in stream water, stream sediment and topsoil, as well as in agricultural soil and grazing land.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of measurement:
other: Geochemical background and ambient chromium concentrations in different environmental compartments across Europe
Media:
other: Natural stream water, stream sediment and topsoil, as well as agricultural and grazing land soils

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
not applicable
IUPAC Name:
not applicable
Test material form:
other: elemental concentrations
Details on test material:
natural occuring chromium

Study design

Details on sampling:
FOREGS and GEMAS data for EU-27 countries plus UK and Norway were considered, i.e. data from non-EEA countries such as Albania, Bosnia and Switzerland were excluded from further analysis.

FOREGS:
- The FOREGS sampling grid was based on GTN grid cells developed for Global Geochemical Baseline mapping. This grid divides the entire land surface into 160 km x 160 km cells covering an area of 4,500,000 km2.
- Sampling methodology, preparation and analysis are described by Salminen et al. (2005).
- FOREGS data for EU-27 countries plus UK and Norway were considered, i.e. data from non-EEA countries such as Albania and Switzerland were excluded from further analysis.
- A total of 795 stream water samples and 832 sediment samples were processed in the FOREGS-program, including 734 paired samples, i.e. samples with the same coordinates for the sampling location of stream water and sediment.
- The FOREGS dataset reports chromium concentrations for 825 topsoil samples. A topsoil sample was taken at each site from 0-25 cm (excluding material from the organic layer where present).
- High quality and consistency of the obtained data were ensured by using standardised sampling methods and by treating and analysing all samples in the same laboratory of each country.

GEMAS:
- Samples from 33 out of 38 European countries were analysed to develop a suitable harmonised geochemical data base for soils. The sampling started in the spring 2008 and the first four months of 2009.
- The whole GEMAS project area of 5,600,000 km2 was divided into a grid with 50 km x 50 km cells.
- To generate harmonised data sets, all project samples were processed by a central sample preparation facility in Slovakia.
- GEMAS data for EU-27 countries plus UK and Norway were considered, i.e. data from non-EEA countries such as Bosnia and Switzerland were excluded from further analysis.
- The GEMAS dataset reports chromium concentrations of 1,867 samples from the regularly ploughed layer (Ap-horizon) of agricultural land (arable land; 0-20 cm) and of 1,781 samples from the top layer of grazing land (soil under permanent grass cover; 0-10 cm) sampled on a grid across Europe.

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

FOREGS DATABASE STREAM WATER/SEDIMENT:

- Sampled stream water and sediments cover a wide range of environmental conditions. Water parameters such as pH, hardness and organic carbon concentrations extend over several magnitudes. Chromium water levels range from < 0.01 (< LOQ) to 43.0 µg/L with 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of 0.06, 0.4 and 1.8 µg/L, respectively.

- In the sediment, chromium concentrations range from 2.0 to 1,748.0 mg/kg with 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of 6.0, 21.0 and 63.0 mg/kg, respectively (Table 1).

-Taking into account the high quality and representativeness of the data set, the 95th percentile of 1.8 µg/L can be regarded as representative background concentration for dissolved chromium in European surface waters and the 95th percentile of 63.0 mg/kg as representative background concentration of chromium in European stream sediments.

-Regarding the partitioning of chromium in the water column, stream water/sediment partition coefficients range from 1,080 to 4,800,000 L/kg. Since FOREGS sampled on a grid aiming to equally represent geochemical baseline concentrations across Europe,a European median log Kp value of 4.75 is derived.

Table 1: Water parameters and chromium concentrations of stream sediment and stream water and respective partitioning.

Parameter

#

Unit

Min.

Max.

5th P

50th P

95th P

water

pH 1

726 2

-

9.80

4.50

8.50

7.70

6.10

water

Ca

734

mg/L

0.23

592.00

1.60

42.28

144.21

water

Cl

734

mg/L

0.14

4,560.00

0.49

8.95

69.08

water

HCO3

7323

mg/L

0.69

1,804.42

5.34

128.01

370.00

water

K

734

mg/L

< 0.01

182.00

0.14

1.62

9.80

water

Mg

734

mg/L

0.05

230.00

0.46

6.15

36.81

water

Na

734

mg/L

0.23

4,030.00

1.00

6.66

48.30

water

NO3

734

mg/L

< 0.04

107.00

< 0.04

3.05

39.91

water

DOC

732 4

mg/L

< 0.50

57.94

0.60

4.84

23.11

water

SO42-

734

mg/L

< 0.30

2,420.00

1.18

16.79

164.56

water

Cr

734

µg/L

< 0.01

43.03

0.06

0.38

1.81

sediment

Cr

734

mg/kg

2.00

1,748.00

6.00

21.00

63.00

Partitioning (Kp)

Cr (sed/water)

734

L/kg

1,080

4,800,000

8,570

56,119

390,841

Log Kp

Cr (sed/water)

734

-

3.03

6.68

3.93

4.75

5.59

Statistics are based on H+ concentrations rather than pH.

Removal of 2 outliers < pH 4.3 and 6 negative values.

Removal of 2 outliers < 0.01.

Removal of 1 outlier > 70 mg/L and 1 negative values.

FOREGS DATABASE Background soil concentrations

- Sampled soils cover a wide range of environmental conditions. Soil parameters, including pH and TOC, cover several magnitudes.

- Baseline chromium levels in topsoil range from 1.0 to 2,340.0 mg/kg with5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of 5.0, 22.0 and 69.8 mg/kg, respectively (see Table 2).

- Taking into account the high quality and representativeness of the data set, the 95th percentile of 69.8 mg/kg can be regarded as representative background concentration of chromium in topsoil of EU countries.

Table 2: Concentrations of chromium in topsoil samples.

Parameter

Unit

#

Min.

Max.

5th P

50th P

95th P

pH 1

-

798

7.55

3.38

7.31

5.49

4.29

TOC

%

805

0.07

46.61

0.55

1.72

5.87

Cr

mg/kg

825

1.00

2,340.00

5.00

22.00

69.80

Statistics are based on H+ concentrations rather than pH.

GEMAS DATABASE AGRICULTURAL AND GRAZING LAND SOIL CONCENTRATIONS:

- Chromium levels of agricultural soil range from 0.40 to 696.02 mg/kg with 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of 4.2, 19.9 and 67.2 mg/kg, respectively (see Table 3). In grazing land, soil concentrations of chromium range from 0.8 to 576.7 mg/kg with 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of 3.9, 19.8 and 67.8 mg/kg, respectively (see Table 4).

Table 3: Agricultural soil concentrations.

Parameter

Unit

Method

#

Min.

Max.

5th P

50th P

95th P

CEC

meq/100g

AAS

1,867

1.80

48.30

6.10

15.80

33.30

pH (CaCl2)

pH

pH-meter

1,867

3.32

7.98

4.14

5.71

7.45

TOC

%

IR

1,854

0.40

46.00

0.70

1.70

5.67

Chromium

mg/kg

AR

1,867

0.40

696.02

4.16

19.87

67.16

Chromium

mg/kg

XRF

1,867

2.00

6,133.00

14.00

58.00

191.00

Chromium

mg/kg

MMI

1,867

< 0.001

1.30

0.01

0.07

0.26

Table 4: Grazing land soil concentrations.

Parameter

Unit

Method

#

Min.

Max.

5th P

50th P

95th P

CEC

meq/100g

AAS

1,781

2.54

49.88

8.27

17.96

37.74

pH (CaCl2)

pH

pH-meter

1,780

3.26

8.06

4.03

5.38

7.45

TOC

%

IR

1,780

0.41

49.00

0.94

2.80

11.05

Chromium

mg/kg

AR

1,781

0.78

576.74

3.87

19.75

67.82

Chromium

mg/kg

XRF

1,781

2.00

6,594.00

13.00

59.00

187.00

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Representative background or ambient concentrations of chromium in environmental compartments are tabulated below:

compartment, unit, concentration (50th P), concentration (95th P)
background stream water, µg/L Cr, 0.4, 1.8
background stream water sediment, mg/kg Cr, 21.0, 63.0
background topsoil, mg/kg Cr, 22.0, 69.8
agricultural soil, mg/kg Cr, 19.9, 67.2
grazing land soil, mg/kg Cr, 19.8, 67.8

Based on the FOREGS dataset, the 95th percentile of 1.8 µg/L can be regarded as representative background concentration for dissolved chromium in European surface waters and the 95th percentile of 63.0 mg/kg as representative background concentration of European stream sediments. Regarding the respective partitioning between sediment and water, a European median log Kp value of 4.75 is derived.

Based on the FOREGS dataset, the 95th percentile of 69.8 mg/kg can be regarded as representative background concentration of chromium in topsoil of EU countries. Representative chromium concentrations (95th percentile) of agricultural and grazing land soil (i.e. ambient levels) amount to 67.2 and 67.8 mg/kg, respectively, according to the GEMAS dataset.