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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Sept. 6, 1996-Dec. 9, 1996
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Two dissolved oxygen readings were outside the guideline limit. During acclimation, 49 hourly temperature readings were marginally lower than the preferred range of 13-17 degree C. These deviations had no effects on results.
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all concentrations
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: If samples could not be analysed the day they were taken, they were stored at 4°C and extracted at the earliest opportunity. Samples were stable for up to 7 days.
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Test substance was added to measured volumes of test medium. The vessels were then sealed, leaving a small headspace, and the contents stirred with a 1-2 cm vortex depth until the aqueous and test substance phases equilibrated (21-22 hrs). The vessels were then allowed to settle for 1.5-2.5 hrs and the aqueous phase drawn off for use in the test as a Water Accomodated Fraction (WAF). The control medium was treated in the same manner.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Strain: Walbaum
- Source: Brow Well Fisheries, Hebden, Yorkshire
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 4.3-4.4 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0.68-0.85 g

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 9 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): minimum of 7 days at test conditions
- Type and amount of food: Mainstream Trout Food No. 03 (BP Nutrition Ltd.)
- Feeding frequency: maintainence ration
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): If mortality is more than 5% in the 7 days preceeding a study, the fish are not used.
Test type:
semi-static
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
146-170 mg/l CaCO3
Test temperature:
14.9-16.4°C
pH:
7.4-7.6
Dissolved oxygen:
6.1-9.6
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal loading rate: 0, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 mg/l
Measured: <0.05, 0.05, 0.16, 0.33, 1.2, 2.9. 5.1 (single measure) mg/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: sealed with a glass plate
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 1 l glass bottles completely filled with test substance
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): fresh test media was added after every observation
- No. of organisms per vessel: 7
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: 500 ft deep Stanlow Well Number 7 treated by softening ion exchange followed by filtration through a twin bed active carbon filter. Water is further filtered after entering the laboratory.
- Intervals of water quality measurement: six months


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Observations for mortality and toxic signs were made at 3, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs.
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
10 - 30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
0.3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
30 - 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
10 - 30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
10 - 30 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Yes, some fish at the 10 mg/l concentration showed symptoms of toxicity at the 24 hr observation such as increased cough frequency, hyperventalism, color changes, and swimming abnormally which continued throughout the test. Some fish in the 30 mg/l group displayed abnormal swimming at the 3 and 24 hr observations. At the 48 hr observation all fish in this group were dead. All fish in the 100 mg/l group showed the above symptoms at the 3 hr observation. By the 24 hr observation, all fish in this group were dead except for 1 fish which was dead at the 48 hr observation.

Mortality of O. mykiss

Loading Rate (mg/l)

3 hrs

24 hrs

48 hrs

72 hrs

96 hrs

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

3

3

0

1

3

3

3

10

0

1

1

1

1

30

0

2

7

7

7

100

0

6

7

7

7

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 96-hr LL50 range for Oncorhynchus mykiss was 10-30 mg/l (WAF).
Executive summary:

The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of white spirits to the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss. Groups of 7 fish were exposed to WAF loading rates of 0, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 mg/l of test substance for 96 -hrs. The test solutions were renewed daily. Fish were observed at 3, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs after start of exposure for mortality and toxic effects. There was some mortality of fish in the 1, 3, and 10 mg/l groups. There was mortality of all animals in the 30 -100 mg/l groups. Behavioural abnormalties were seen at concentrations of 10 mg/l and above. The 96-hr LL50 range for Oncorhynchus mykiss was 10-30 mg/l (WAF). 

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
from 1994-04-07 to 1994-07-15
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Water hardness higher than recommended; However, it is assumed that it had no influence on the test results.
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were taken during the equilibration phase (WAF preparation: media allowed to settle for about 1 hour) and at the end of the period of use 24 hours later.
All extractions for each test were performed on the day of the samples being taken and all determinations carried out on the same or following day.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
Water accomodated fractions of Shellsol H were produced by stirring water appropriate to the test organisms and Shellsol H from 69-71 hours, leaving the contents of the vessel to stand at least for 1 hour and running off the aqueous phase for use as the test medium.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Exmoor trout farm, Molton, Devon UK
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 4.7-5.2 cm (mean length: 4.9 cm)
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0.87-1.2 g (mean weight: 1.0 g)

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: at least 9 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): minimum of 7 days at test conditions
- Type and amount of food: Mainstream Trout Food No. 03 (BP Nutrition Ltd.)
- Feeding frequency: maintenance ration
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): If mortality is more than 5% in the 7 days preceeding a study, the fish are not used.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
258-254 mg/l CaCO3
Test temperature:
14-15°C
pH:
7.1-7.2
Dissolved oxygen:
9.4-10.1
Salinity:
Not applicable (freshwater)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal loading rate: 0, 10, 100, 1000 mg/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: sealed with a glass plate
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 11 l glass aspirators completely filled with test medium (WAF) or dilution watr (control)
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): fresh test media was added after every observation
- No. of organisms per vessel: 7
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The water comes from two pumping stations (Highstead and controlled by the Mid Kent Water Company. The water is obtained from bore holes in the chalk of the North Downs. The only chemical treatment prior to its arrival in the laboratory is chlorination to 0.1 mg/l. In the laboratory, the water is filtered (PAL MDY 1001 Y400) to remove all particles larger than 15 µm (90% of particles greater than 10µm) and passed through activated carbon filters (Cuno model CT) to remove chlorine and organic conatminants. Both particle and activated carbon filter cartridges are renewed as recommended by the manufacturers. Heat exchange units (stainless steel and perspex) are used to adjust the temperature of the water.
- Intervals of water quality measurement: six months


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Observations for mortality and toxic signs were made at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
10 - 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
100 - 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
10 - 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 96-hr LL50 range for Oncorhynchus mykiss was 10-100 mg/l (WAF).
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of water accomodated fractions (aqueous extrats) of Shellsol H has been determined to the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout).

The test media were prepared by adding quantities of Shellsol H to culture medium appropriate to the test organisms and stirring in sealed vessels for 69 -71 hours). The strirring period was demonstrated as being sufficient to ensure equilibration of the shellsol H and aqueous phases. After stirring the contents of the test vessels were left to settle for about 1 hour before drawing off the WAF for use as the test media in the toxicity tests.

The concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons (derived from the Shellsol H) in the test media was determined during the toxicit tests usig gas chromatography. The analyses showed that the concentration in the test media was <1%% of the loading rate. The reduction in the concentration of dissolved hydrocarbons in the test media during the test was ≤26%.

The acute toxicity to O. mykiss of water accomodated fractions of Shellsol H prepared at loading rates of 10, 100, and 1000 mg/l was determined in a 96h semi-static toxicity test with daily renewal of the test media. The test was conducted in sealed test vessels. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LL50 values (loading rates resulting in mortality of 50% of the fish after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure) were >1000, 100 -1000, 10 -100 and 10 -100 mg/l respectively.

Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Water accommodated fractions of Hydrocarbons, C9-C12, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -25%), produced a 96-hour LL50 value in the range 10-30 mg/L with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Water accommodated fractions of Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -25%), produced a 96-hour LL50 value in the range 10-100 mg/L with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.