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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: dermal

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
While this is not a guideline study, these data are generated by one of the premier experts in the toxicology of cyanides, Dr. Brian Ballantyne, author of "Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Cyanides", 1987. This data was reviewed by and found to be valid by the ECETOC Task Force on Cyanides, who authored the ECETOC JACC No. 53 report.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Acute percutaneous systemic toxicity of cyanides
Author:
Ballantyne B.
Year:
1994
Bibliographic source:
J Toxicol – Cut and Ocular Toxicol 13:249-262.

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Animals were exposed to a solution of cyanide via a specially-designed application vessel attached to the shaved and depilitated skin, intact and abraded. Observations were made of clinical signs and death, and time to these signs was noted.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test type:
other:
Limit test:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium cyanide
EC Number:
205-599-4
EC Name:
Sodium cyanide
Cas Number:
143-33-9
Molecular formula:
CNNa
IUPAC Name:
sodium cyanide
Details on test material:
97% pure

Test animals

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
female

Administration / exposure

Type of coverage:
other: specially-designed phalanges for attachment of vessel containing test material
Details on dermal exposure:
Exposed skin was depilitated, and a glass application vessel was attached using double-sided adhesive EEG electrode disks, cut in the middle to allow direct exposure. Solutions of cyanide were instilled into the well of the application chamber using a calibrated pipette, after which it was seals. A volume of 0.1 ml/kg was used. Animals were slightly restrained during the exposure, after which the cylinders were removed and the chambers washed out.
Duration of exposure:
up to 6 hours
No. of animals per sex per dose:
9-10
Control animals:
not specified
Details on study design:
The skin of some rabbits was abraded; the remaining rabbits' skin was intact.
Statistics:
95% Confidence Limits calculated

Results and discussion

Effect levelsopen allclose all
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
ca. 11.28 mg/kg bw
95% CL:
> 9.17 - < 12.67
Remarks on result:
other: NaCN solution on abraded skin
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
ca. 14.63 mg/kg bw
95% CL:
> 13.75 - < 15.35
Remarks on result:
other: NaCN solution on intact skin
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
7.35 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
95% CL:
6.68 - 7.81
Remarks on result:
other: Dry NaCN powder on abraded skin
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
11.83 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
95% CL:
7.4 - 18.92
Remarks on result:
other: NaCN powder on moistened intact skin
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 200 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: Dry NaCN powder on intact skin
Mortality:
50%
Clinical signs:
no data
Body weight:
no data
Gross pathology:
no data
Other findings:
no data

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Toxicity Category I
Remarks:
Migrated information as per Regulation(EC) No. 1272/2008. Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
The LD50 of a NaCN solution by the dermal route to rabbits with intact skin was 14.63 mg/kg bw. The LD50 in rabbits with abraded skin was 11.28 mg/kg bw. These correspond to 0.231 and 0.299 mmol NaCN/kg, respectively. Dry powder NaCN was also tested on intact and abraded skin. The LD50 of the powder on intact moistened skin was 11.83 mg/kg, while it was over 200 mg/kg when the skin remained dry. In abraded skin, the LD50 of dry powder was 7.35 mg/kg. The onset of symptoms was rapid, within minutes.

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