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Diss Factsheets

Physical & Chemical properties

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

Appearance/physical state/colour

Lithium carbonate is a white solid and odourless substance in granular or powder form.

Melting point

The determination of the melting point was performed according to EU guideline A.1 and OECD 102 by applying the differential scanning calorimetry. The melting point of lithium carbonate was determined to be 722 °C at 101 325 Pa. Handbook-data revealed similar results.

Boiling point

The melting point of lithium carbonate was determined as 722 °C at 1013.25 hPa. In accordance with column 2 of Reach Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex VII, section 7.3, the boiling point does not need to be conducted for solids which decompose before boiling. Lithium carbonate does not have a boiling point. It decomposes when heated. Decomposition temperature: 1300 °C (see IUCLID Section 4.2: Supporting, Lide, Melting point/ freezing point).

Density

According to the handbook-data the relative density of lithium carbonate is 2.1 g/cm3.

Particle size distribution (Granulometry)

The particle size distribution was measured by laser diffraction. At one study the averages of three measurements were as follows: d10: 8.0 µm, d50: 461 µm, d90: 977 µm. In another study the values were as follows: d10: 1.76 µm, d50: 5.47 µm, d90: 12.1 µm. Differences may depend on the technique of production and / or measurement of particle size distribution incl. sample preparation. However, the range for the different qualities is comparable with the fraction equal / lowers 10 µm being always above 10 %.

Vapour pressure

In accordance with column 2 of Reach Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex VII, section 7.5, the vapour pressure does not need to be conducted if the melting point is above 300 °C. Lithium carbonate has a melting point of 722 °C. Therefore, a study on vapour pressure is not applicable.

Partition coefficient

In accordance with column 2 of REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex VII, section 7.8, the test on partition coefficient n-octanol/water does not need to be conducted if the substance is inorganic. Lithium carbonate is an inorganic compound. The theoretical, calculated (EPIWIN) log Pow is -6.19, i.e. very low, as expected for an inorganic salt.

Water solubility

The solubility of lithium carbonate in water at 20 ± 0.5 °C was determined according to OECD Guideline No. 105 and EU method A.6 (GLP study). In conclusion the water solubility of lithium carbonate was determined to be 8.4 g/L at 20 +/- 0.5 °C using the shakeflask method for the performance of the main test. Handbook-data provided similar results with about 13 g/L.

Surface tension

In accordance with column 2 of REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex VII, section 7.6, the determination of surface tension only needs to be conducted if surface activity is expected or can be predicted. Based on the molecular structure, surface activity is not expected for lithium carbonate.

Flash point

As lithium carbonate is a solid at room temperature, the determination of the flash point is scientifically unjustified and therefore was not performed. Instead, a test on flammability for solids upon contact in air was conducted (see IUCLID section 4.13).

Auto flammability

In accordance with column 2 of REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex VII, section 7.12, a self-ignition temperature study does not need to be conducted as the substance is not flammable (see IUCLID section 4.13) and experience in handling gives no indication, that the substance is self-heating up to 400 °C. As both criteria are applicable to lithium carbonate, no test was performed.

Flammability

Following EU method A.10, the preliminary screening test did not indicate flammable properties. Because of the result of the preliminary test, lithium carbonate as a solid is not considered highly flammable.

The chemical structure of lithium carbonate does not contain chemical groups, which may lead to the conclusion that the test substance is capable of developing a dangerous amount of (flammable) gas in contact with water. Further, it can be concluded that lithium carbonate is not pyrophoric (Ref.: R.7a: Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, EU-Document (May 2008)). The experience in handling and use does not indicate flammability upon contact with water or pyrophoric properties. Further lithium carbonate does not meet the criteria for self-reactive substances and organic peroxides. Therefore, no experimental determination of flammability regarding these kinds of flammability testing was carried out.

Explosiveness

In accordance with column 2 of REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex VII, section 7.11, the determination of explosiveness does not need to be conducted as there are no chemical groups associated with explosive properties present in lithium carbonate (referring to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.7a).

Oxidising properties

The determination of the oxidising properties of lithium carbonate was performed according to the UN Test of Oxidising Solids O.1. The test item was mixed with dry fibrous cellulose in mixing ratios of 1:1 and 4:1 by mass, of sample to cellulose. The burning characteristics of the mixtures were compared with the standard 3:7 mixture, by mass, of potassium bromate to cellulose (Packing Group III reference material). Under the conditions of this test, the test item did not appear to be a Division 5.1 Solid Oxidizer, as defined by UN/DOT criteria. This is because the sample, combined with cellulose in 1:1 and 4:1 ratios appeared to have an average burn time greater than the Packing Group III reference standards, when the UN Test of Oxidizing Solids Test O.1 was performed on the material.

Stability in organic solvents and identity of relevant degradation products

In accordance with column 2 REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex IX, section 7.15, the study which examines stability in organic solvents does not need to be conducted as the test substance lithium carbonate is an inorganic substance.

Storage stability and reactivity towards container material

Corrosion to metals:

In accordance with ECHA guidance on the Application of the CLP Criteria section 2.15, the test has obviously been designed for liquids. Thus, as the substance is a solid at room temperature the study was not conducted.

Dissociation constant

In accordance with column 2 of REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex IX, section 7.10, the determination of the dissociation constant does not need to be conducted as the substance lithium carbonate is hydrolytically unstable (see IUCLID section 5.1.2 Hydrolysis).

Viscosity

The study which examines viscosity and is required according to REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex IX, section 7.17, does not need to be conducted as the test substance lithium carbonate is not a liquid.

Additional physico-chemical information

Flammable Aerosols:

Section 2.4.2 of Guidance on the application on the CLP Criteria states as follows: “Aerosols, this means aerosol dispensers, are any non-refillable receptacles made of metal, glass or plastics and containing a gas compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure, with or without a liquid, paste or powder, and fitted with a release device allowing the contents to be ejected as solid or liquid particles in suspension in a gas, as a foam, paste or powder or in a liquid state or in a gaseous state.” Thus, as the substance does not meet the definition for aerosol, the test for aerosols was waived.

Gases under pressure:

Further, in accordance with section 1.0 Annex I of Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, the test does not be conducted as the boiling point of the substance is above 20 °C. Thus, as the substance is not a gas at room temperature, the test was not conducted.