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Description of key information

In an dermal irritation study in rabbits according to OECD guideline 404 Glyoxylic Acid 50% was not  irritating or corrosive.
In an eye irritation study according OECD guideline 405 Glyoxylic Acid 50% caused highly corrosive effects in rabbits.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Skin irritation / corrosion

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Eye irritation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed (irritating)

Additional information

In a primary dermal irritation study conducted according to OECD TG 404 and GLP, six male Albino New Zealand rabbits (per test), weighing about 2.5 kg (+/- 200g) at the beginning of the study, were dermally exposed to 0.5 ml of Glyoxalic Acid 50% for 4 hours to a body surface area of 2.5 cm square. Animals then were observed for 3 days. Only one animal showed a slight erythema (barely perceptile) and no other skin irritating effect was observed by all the animals during the whole study period. Based on these results it can be concluded that Glyoxylic Acid 50% is not irritating to the rabbits skin.

In a primary eye irritation study according to OECD TG 405 and GLP, 0.1 ml of a 50 % solution of Glyoxylic Acid was instilled into the inferior conjunctival sac of the right eye of six male Albino New Zealand rabbits. The left eye served as control. The eyes were washed out 4 seconds (3 animals) or 30 seconds after instillation. Examinations were carried out by comparison with the control eye, 1 hour after the instillation, and then at Day 1 (24 hrs), Day 2, Day 3, Day 4 and Day 7. Glyoxylic Acid 50% caused severe damage to the rabbits eyes, demonstrating that Glyoxylic Acid 50% is extremely irritating to the rabbit eye.

As Glyoxylic Acid 50% is severely irritating to the rabbit eye, inhalation of Glyoxylic Acid 50% might cause locally irritating effects to the repiratory tract..

Effects on eye irritation: corrosive

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the results of the skin and eye irritation studies, Glyoxylic Acid 50% is subject to classification and labelling:

R41 (Risk of serious damage to eyes) according to Directive 67/548/EEC

Cat 1 / H 318 (causes serious eye damage) according to Regulation 1272/2008/EC.