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Description of key information

Piperazine has been found corrosive to the skin in animal tests. Thus, serious eye damage can also be expected.

Based on the EpiDermTM prediction model for corrosion, piperazine at a 34% concentration was classified as corrosive while all the other dilutions <= 30% were classified as non-corrosive.

No effects were noted on human skin at concentrations below 2.2 %.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Skin irritation / corrosion

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed (corrosive)

Additional information

Skin corrosion/irritation

There are no in vitro data on skin corrosion/irritation because sufficient in vivo data were available.

In a skin irritation/corrosion test performed according to OECD404, rabbits were exposed for 4 hours to 50% piperazine solution under semi-occlusive dressing (BASF, 1984). After 4 h exposure washing with Lutrol was performed. Full thickness necrosis was observed after 24 hours and thus, the study was terminated after 72 h. Piperazine is corrosive to rabbit skin. In supporting, in a Primary skin irritation test, rabbits were exposed for 3 min and 1 h to piperazine under occlusive dressing (Myers, 1990). Skin reactions were observed for 14 days. Full thickness necrosis, scab formation and alopecia were observed after the 1 h exposure.

Before OECD404 was established in 1982, skin irritation of piperazine was tested using an internal method in rabbits, exposing 2.5 x 2.5 cm2 for 1, 5, 15 min or 20 h under occlusinve dressing (BASF, 1964). After 20 h exposure mean erythema score for 24/48/27 h was 1.55, mean edema score was 0.83; both findings were fully reversible within the observation period of 14 days. Superficial necrosis was observed, indicating strong skin irritation.

Eye irritation

An eye irritation study is scientifically not needed as the substance is classified as skin corrosive, leading to classification of serious eye damage (Category 1).

Other data:

No effects were noted on human skin at concentrations below 2,2 %.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the available data, piperazine is corrosive to the skin. According to Annex VI of Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP Regulation), piperazine [solid] is classified as Skin Corr. Cat. 1B (H314).

The classification for skin corrosion also leads to a classification of serious eye damage (Eye Dam. 1; H318) according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP Regulation).