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EC number: 203-808-3
CAS number: 110-85-0
Piperazine has shown low toxicity in acute
oral and dermal toxicity tests: LD50 oral, rat = 2600 mg/kg bw and LD50
dermal, rabbit = 8300 mg/kg bw. In acute inhalation toxicity tests
(inhalation hazard tests) rats were exposed to the vapour; no LC50 was
determined. At 1.61 mg/l exposure for 7 h slight mucosal irritation was
noted. No clinical signs were noted at inhalation exposure of 0.57 mg/l
for 7 h.
Three reliable acute oral toxicity studies
with very similar results are available. The key study was selected
based on the lower acute oral LD50 value and the reporting date.
In an acute toxicity study Sprague Dawley rats were dosed with
piperazine by gavage. Groups with 5 males and 5 females in each group
recevied doses of 1000, 1210, 1780, 2610 or 3830 mg/kg. The LD50 value
was 2600 mg/kg bw (BASF, 1980). In support, in an acute toxicity study
acccording to OECD401, 5 male and 5 female rats in five dose groups were
exposed to piperazine by oral gavage. The LD50 value for male and female
rats was 3200 mg/kg bw (Mallory, 1981). In an acute toxicity study, rats
were exposed to piperazine by gavage in six dose groups with 5 animals
per sex per dose. The LD50 was 2500 mg/kg bw (BASF, 1964).
In an Inhalation Hazard Test, no mortality
was observed when 6 rats were exposed for 8 hours to an atmosphere
saturated at room temperature; the calculated concentration was 1.61
mg/L. Slight mucosal irritaion was noted. Extrapolation using Haber´s
law results in a LC0 for 4h of 2 mg/l (BASF, 1964). In support, no
mortality was observed in an Inhalation Hazard Test, when 6 rats were
exposed for 7 hours to a saturated atmosphere at room temperature; the
calculcated concentration was 0.57 mg/L. No clinical signs were noted.
Extrapolation using Haber´s law results in an LC0 for 4 h of 0.8 mg/L
(BASF, 1980). Thus, inhalation of an enriched/saturated
vapour-air-mixture represents an unlikely acute hazard.
In an acute dermal toxicity study in rabbits
performed according to OECD402, but with deviations in number of animals
used and abrasion of the skin, an LD50 value of 8300 mg/kg was found
(Pharmakon Laboratories, 1981).
Data on human exposure for piperazine as an
anti-helmintic agent has shown neurotoxic effects for which a LOAEL of
110 mg/kg can be set.
Piperazine does not meet the criteria for
classification for acute toxicity according to the CLP regulation
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