Registration Dossier

Identification

Chemical structure
Display Name:
Resin acids and Rosin acids, sodium salts
EC Number:
263-144-5
EC Name:
Resin acids and Rosin acids, sodium salts
CAS Number:
61790-51-0
Molecular formula:
C19H29COOH
IUPAC Name:
heptadecasodium (3R)-1,3-dimethyl-2-{2-[3-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]ethyl}cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-6-methylidene-5-[(2E)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dien-1-yl]-decahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-6-methylidene-5-[2-(oxolan-3-yl)ethyl]-decahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,9,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-5-(4-carboxy-3-methylbutyl)-1,4a-dimethyl-6-methylidene-decahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-7-ethenyl-1,4a,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate bis((4aR)-7-ethenyl-1,4a,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate) (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,9,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-tetradecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-ylidene)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate 5,9,18,18,22-pentamethyl-13,26-bis(propan-2-yl)heptacyclo[13.11.1.1^{2,10}.0^{4,9}.0^{17,22}.0^{23,27}.0^{14,28}]octacosa-1(27),2-diene-5-carboxylate

Type of substance

Composition:
UVCB
Origin:
organic

Total tonnage band

Total range:
10 000 - 100 000 tonnes per annum

REACH

Registered as:
FULL
Submitted:
Joint Submission

Publication dates

First published:
20-Dec-2010
Last modified:
10-Jan-2020

Chemical safety assessment

Performed for this substance:
YES

Compositions open all close all

Type:
legal entity composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: bulk


Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium salts of rosin dimers
Molecular formula:
C40H58O4.Na2
IUPAC Name:
Sodium salts of rosin dimers
Constituent 2
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Neutral Fraction
Molecular formula:
Not available (UVCB substance).
IUPAC Name:
Neutral Fraction
Constituent 3
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium salt of dehydroabietic acid
Molecular formula:
C20H27O2Na
IUPAC Name:
Sodium salt of dehydroabietic acid
Constituent 4
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium salts of Di Hydro (combined) resin acids
Molecular formula:
C20H31O2Na
IUPAC Name:
Sodium salts of Di Hydro (combined) resin acids
Constituent 5
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium salts of pimaric type resin acids
Molecular formula:
C20H29O2Na
IUPAC Name:
Sodium salts of pimaric type resin acids
Constituent 6
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium salts of Abietic type resin acids
Molecular formula:
C20H29O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
Sodium salts of Abietic type resin acids
Constituent 7
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium salt of Tetrahydro (combined resin acids)
Molecular formula:
C20H33O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
Sodium salt of Tetrahydro (combined resin acids)
Constituent 8
Reference substance name:
Fatty Acids
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is UVCB constituent
IUPAC Name:
Fatty Acids
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance
State Form:
liquid


Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Molecular formula:
C20H28O2
IUPAC Name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Pimaric Type
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2
IUPAC Name:
Pimaric Type
Constituent 3
Reference substance name:
Abietic Type
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2
IUPAC Name:
Abietic Type
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance


Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium abietate
EC Number:
238-313-1
EC Name:
Sodium abietate
CAS Number:
14351-66-7
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid,1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, sodiumsalt, [1R-(1a,4ab,4ba,10aa)]-
Constituent 2
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium [1R-(1α,4aβ,10aα)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethylphenanthren-1-carboxylate
EC Number:
248-873-9
EC Name:
Sodium [1R-(1α,4aβ,10aα)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethylphenanthren-1-carboxylate
CAS Number:
28161-39-9
Molecular formula:
C20H28O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, 1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, sodium salt (1:1), (1R,4aS,10aR)-
Constituent 3
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoate
EC Number:
212-491-0
EC Name:
Sodium (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoate
CAS Number:
822-17-3
Molecular formula:
C18H32O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium octadeca-9,12-dienoate
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: bulk


Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
IUPAC Name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Pimaric Type
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2
IUPAC Name:
Pimaric Type
Constituent 3
Reference substance name:
Abietic Type
IUPAC Name:
Abietic Type
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance


Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Resin acids and Rosin acids, sodium salts
EC Number:
263-144-5
EC Name:
Resin acids and Rosin acids, sodium salts
CAS Number:
61790-51-0
Molecular formula:
C19H29COOH
IUPAC Name:
heptadecasodium (3R)-1,3-dimethyl-2-{2-[3-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]ethyl}cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-6-methylidene-5-[(2E)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dien-1-yl]-decahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-6-methylidene-5-[2-(oxolan-3-yl)ethyl]-decahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,9,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-5-(4-carboxy-3-methylbutyl)-1,4a-dimethyl-6-methylidene-decahydronaphthalene-1-carboxylate (4aR)-7-ethenyl-1,4a,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate bis((4aR)-7-ethenyl-1,4a,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate) (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,9,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-tetradecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate (4aS)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-ylidene)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate 5,9,18,18,22-pentamethyl-13,26-bis(propan-2-yl)heptacyclo[13.11.1.1^{2,10}.0^{4,9}.0^{17,22}.0^{23,27}.0^{14,28}]octacosa-1(27),2-diene-5-carboxylate
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Rosin
EC Number:
232-475-7
EC Name:
Rosin
CAS Number:
8050-09-7
Molecular formula:
Unspecified.
IUPAC Name:
Rosin
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: particulate/powder


Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Tall-oil rosin
EC Number:
232-484-6
EC Name:
Tall-oil rosin
CAS Number:
8052-10-6
IUPAC Name:
8052-10-6
Constituent 2
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium hydroxide
EC Number:
215-185-5
EC Name:
Sodium hydroxide
CAS Number:
1310-73-2
Molecular formula:
NaOH
IUPAC Name:
Sodium Hydroxide
Type:
boundary composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: bulk


Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Labdane Acids
IUPAC Name:
Labdane Acids
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Methyl Dehydro Abietic Acid
IUPAC Name:
Methyl Dehydro Abietic Acid
Constituent 3
Reference substance name:
Trimers
Molecular formula:
UVCB - not applicable
IUPAC Name:
Trimers
Constituent 4
Reference substance name:
Dimers
Molecular formula:
UVCB - not applicable
IUPAC Name:
Dimers
Constituent 5
Reference substance name:
Neutral Fraction
IUPAC Name:
Neutral Fraction
Constituent 6
Reference substance name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
IUPAC Name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Constituent 7
Reference substance name:
Tetra Hydro (Combined)
IUPAC Name:
Tetra Hydro (Combined)
Constituent 8
Reference substance name:
Di Hydro (Combined)
IUPAC Name:
Di Hydro (Combined)
Constituent 9
Reference substance name:
Tall Oil Fatty Acids
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is UVCB constituent
IUPAC Name:
Tall Oil Fatty Acids
Constituent 10
Reference substance name:
Pimaric Type
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2
IUPAC Name:
Pimaric Type
Constituent 11
Reference substance name:
Abietic Type
IUPAC Name:
Abietic Type
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: particulate/powder


Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Abietic type and Pimaric type, sodium salt
Molecular formula:
Not applicable for a group of substances within a UVCB
IUPAC Name:
Abietic type and Pimaric type, sodium salt
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Fatty acids, sodium salt
Molecular formula:
Not applicable for a group of substances within a UVCB
IUPAC Name:
Fatty acids, sodium salt
Constituent 3
Reference substance name:
Di hydro(combined), sodium salt
Molecular formula:
Not applicable for a group of substances within a UVCB
IUPAC Name:
Di hydro(combined), sodium salt
Constituent 4
Reference substance name:
Tetra hydro (combined), sodium salt
Molecular formula:
Not applicable for a group of substances within a UVCB
IUPAC Name:
Tetra hydro (combined), sodium salt
Constituent 5
Reference substance name:
Dehydro(abietic), sodium salt
Molecular formula:
Not applicable for a group of substances within a UVCB
IUPAC Name:
Dehydro(abietic), sodium salt
Constituent 6
Reference substance name:
Neutral fraction, sodium salt
Molecular formula:
Not applicable for a group of substances within a UVCB
IUPAC Name:
Neutral fraction, sodium salt
Constituent 7
Reference substance name:
Dimers, sodium salt
Molecular formula:
Not applicable for a group of substances within a UVCB
IUPAC Name:
Dimers, sodium salt
Constituent 8
Reference substance name:
Labdane acids, sodium salt
Molecular formula:
Not applicable for a group of substances within a UVCB
IUPAC Name:
Labdane acids, sodium salt
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance


Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium abietate
EC Number:
238-313-1
EC Name:
Sodium abietate
CAS Number:
14351-66-7
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid,1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, sodiumsalt, [1R-(1a,4ab,4ba,10aa)]-
Constituent 2
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium [1R-(1α,4aβ,10aα)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethylphenanthren-1-carboxylate
EC Number:
248-873-9
EC Name:
Sodium [1R-(1α,4aβ,10aα)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethylphenanthren-1-carboxylate
CAS Number:
28161-39-9
Molecular formula:
C20H28O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, 1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, sodium salt (1:1), (1R,4aS,10aR)-
Constituent 3
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
sodium 1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Molecular formula:
C20H29O2Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium 1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Constituent 4
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
sodium (1R,4aR,4bS,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-ylidene-3,4,4b,5,6,9,10,10a-octahydro-2H-phenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Molecular formula:
C20H29O2Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium (1R,4aR,4bS,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-ylidene-3,4,4b,5,6,9,10,10a-octahydro-2H-phenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Type:
boundary composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: bulk


Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Labdane Acids
IUPAC Name:
Labdane Acids
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Methyl Dehydro Abietic Acid
IUPAC Name:
Methyl Dehydro Abietic Acid
Constituent 3
Reference substance name:
Trimers
IUPAC Name:
Trimers
Constituent 4
Reference substance name:
Dimers
IUPAC Name:
Dimers
Constituent 5
Reference substance name:
Neutral Fraction
IUPAC Name:
Neutral Fraction
Constituent 6
Reference substance name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
IUPAC Name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Constituent 7
Reference substance name:
Tetra Hydro (Combined)
IUPAC Name:
Tetra Hydro (Combined)
Constituent 8
Reference substance name:
Di Hydro (Combined)
IUPAC Name:
Di Hydro (Combined)
Constituent 9
Reference substance name:
Fatty Acids
IUPAC Name:
Fatty Acids
Constituent 10
Reference substance name:
Pimaric Type
IUPAC Name:
Pimaric Type
Constituent 11
Reference substance name:
Abietic Type
IUPAC Name:
Abietic Type
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance


Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
sodium (1R,4aS,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,9,10,10a-hexahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Molecular formula:
C20H27O2Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium (1R,4aS,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,9,10,10a-hexahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Constituent 2
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
sodium 1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,4b,5,6,7,9,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Molecular formula:
C20H31O2Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium 1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,4b,5,6,7,9,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Constituent 3
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium abietate
EC Number:
238-313-1
EC Name:
Sodium abietate
CAS Number:
14351-66-7
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid,1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, sodiumsalt, [1R-(1a,4ab,4ba,10aa)]-
Constituent 4
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
sodium (1R,4aR,4bS,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-ylidene-3,4,4b,5,6,9,10,10a-octahydro-2H-phenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Molecular formula:
C20H29O2Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium (1R,4aR,4bS,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-ylidene-3,4,4b,5,6,9,10,10a-octahydro-2H-phenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Constituent 5
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
sodium 1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Molecular formula:
C20H29O2Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium 1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Type:
boundary composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: bulk


Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Labdane Acids
IUPAC Name:
Labdane Acids
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Methyl Dehydro Abietic Acid
IUPAC Name:
Methyl Dehydro Abietic Acid
Constituent 3
Reference substance name:
Trimers
Molecular formula:
UVCB - not applicable
IUPAC Name:
Trimers
Constituent 4
Reference substance name:
Dimers
Molecular formula:
UVCB - not applicable
IUPAC Name:
Dimers
Constituent 5
Reference substance name:
Neutral Fraction
IUPAC Name:
Neutral Fraction
Constituent 6
Reference substance name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Molecular formula:
C20H28O2
IUPAC Name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Constituent 7
Reference substance name:
Tetra Hydro (Combined)
IUPAC Name:
Tetra Hydro (Combined)
Constituent 8
Reference substance name:
Di Hydro (Combined)
IUPAC Name:
Di Hydro (Combined)
Constituent 9
Reference substance name:
Tall Oil Fatty Acids
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is UVCB constituent
IUPAC Name:
Tall Oil Fatty Acids
Constituent 10
Reference substance name:
Pimaric Type
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2
IUPAC Name:
Pimaric Type
Constituent 11
Reference substance name:
Abietic Type
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2
IUPAC Name:
Abietic Type
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: bulk


Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium abietate
EC Number:
238-313-1
EC Name:
Sodium abietate
CAS Number:
14351-66-7
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2.Na
IUPAC Name:
1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid,1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, sodiumsalt, [1R-(1a,4ab,4ba,10aa)]-
Constituent 2
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
[1R-(1α,4aβ,10aα)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethylphenanthren-1-carboxylic acid
EC Number:
217-102-8
EC Name:
[1R-(1α,4aβ,10aα)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethylphenanthren-1-carboxylic acid
CAS Number:
1740-19-8
Molecular formula:
C20H28O2
IUPAC Name:
abieta-8,11,13-trien-18-oic acid
Constituent 3
Reference substance name:
Rosin
EC Number:
232-475-7
EC Name:
Rosin
CAS Number:
8050-09-7
Molecular formula:
Unspecified.
IUPAC Name:
Rosin
Constituent 4
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium hydroxide
EC Number:
215-185-5
EC Name:
Sodium hydroxide
CAS Number:
1310-73-2
Molecular formula:
NaOH
IUPAC Name:
Sodium Hydroxide
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance
State Form:
solid: bulk


Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Labdane Acids
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is a UVCB substance
IUPAC Name:
Labdane Acids
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Methyl Dehydro Abietic Acid
Molecular formula:
C21H30O2
IUPAC Name:
Methyl Dehydro Abietic Acid
Constituent 3
Reference substance name:
Trimers
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is a UVCB substance
IUPAC Name:
Trimers
Constituent 4
Reference substance name:
Dimers
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is a UVCB substance
IUPAC Name:
Dimers
Constituent 5
Reference substance name:
Neutral Fraction
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is a UVCB substance
IUPAC Name:
Neutral Fraction
Constituent 6
Reference substance name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Molecular formula:
C20H28O2
IUPAC Name:
Dehydro (Abietic)
Constituent 7
Reference substance name:
Tetra Hydro (Combined)
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is a UVCB substance
IUPAC Name:
Tetra Hydro (Combined)
Constituent 8
Reference substance name:
Di Hydro (Combined)
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is a UVCB substance
IUPAC Name:
Di Hydro (Combined)
Constituent 9
Reference substance name:
Tall Oil Fatty Acids
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is UVCB constituent
IUPAC Name:
Tall Oil Fatty Acids
Constituent 10
Reference substance name:
Pimaric Type
Molecular formula:
C20H30O2
IUPAC Name:
Pimaric Type
Constituent 11
Reference substance name:
Abietic Type
Molecular formula:
not applicable as it is a UVCB substance
IUPAC Name:
Abietic Type
Type:
legal entity composition of the substance
State Form:
other: paste


Constituent 1