Registration Dossier

Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
Dec. 3 - 10, 1993
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: EPA-600/489/001: Short term methods for measuring the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms. Deviations, reliability, and validity evaluated against USEPA OPPTS 850.1300 (Daphnid Chronic Toxicity Test).
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples were taken from all exposure concentrations on days 1, 4 and 7.
- Sampling method: 50 mL of sample water was removed from each of the replicate stream channels and combined to yield a 100 mL sample for each test concentration. Each sample was treated to three successive MBAS extractions using HPLC grade chloroform. Extracted material was combined and brought to 50 mL with fresh chloroform.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Test material stock solutions were prepared by diluting surfactants in distilled water. Stock mixtures of the test substance were made up in 4-L batches and placed on magnetic stirrers.
- Controls: in dilution water (no test substance present)
- Evidence of undissolved material: none
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain/clone: Not available
- Justification for species other than prescribed by test guideline: Not applicable
- Source: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University In-house breeding culture
- Age of parental stock: Not available
- Feeding during test: Yes
- Food type: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Selenastrum capricornutum
- Amount: Not available
- Frequency: daily at each renewal


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Not available
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Not available
- Type and amount of food: trialgal diet containing equal portions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas vulgaris and Selenastrum capricornutum.
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available


METHOD FOR PREPARATION AND COLLECTION OF EARLY INSTARS OR OTHER LIFE STAGES: not provided
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
7 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
114-205 mg CaCO3/L
Alkalinity: 67.3-80.7 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
24.9 - 25.3 C
pH:
7.4-8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
6.4-7.5 mg/L
Salinity:
306-576 µmhos/cm (conductivity)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L
Measured concentrations were 0, 0.14, 0.88, 1.20, 4.73, and 8.35 mg/L
The measured concentrations were 28, 88, 60, 118 and 104 % of the nominal concentrations, respectively. Results are based on measured concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: Test chamber is a 35 mL disposable polystyrene cup fitted with 120-µM Nitex mesh on opposite sides
- Aeration: no (test was flow-through)
- Type of flow-through: peristaltic
- Renewal rate of test solution: 360 ml/hr
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10
- Biomass loading rate: 1 daphnid/35 ml


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Reconstituted water as described by Lauth et al (1990)
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: Not available
- Salinity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: Not available
- Intervals of water quality measurement: days 1,4 and 7 for each exposure concentration


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not available
- Photoperiod: 16 h light / 8 h dark
- Light intensity: 150 - 400 foot candles


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality and number of young were assessed daily


RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- Test concentrations: 0-101 mg/L (see section 6.1.3., acute test, for details)
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Yes, the results of the acute toxicity test was used to establish test concentrations for the chronic test.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.88 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
other: IC20
Effect conc.:
0.94 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: 0.70 - 1.05
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals: See section below (Remarks on results including tables and figures)
- No. of offspring produced per day per female: See section below (Remarks on results including tables and figures)
- Body length and weight of parent animals: Not available
- Type and number of morphological abnormalities: Not available
- Type and number of behavioural abnormalities: Not available
- Number of males and females (parental): Not available
- Time to first brood release or time to hatch: Not available
- Egg development time: Not available
- Brood size: not available
- Time to sexual maturity: Not available
- Type and magnitude of biochemical changes: Not available
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: none
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the NOEC and LOEC effect concentrations. The EC20 was determined using a nonlinear regression approach as described by Bruce and Versteeg (1992). All analyses of variance were conducted using Minitab (1993).

Chronic Effects of C12AS on Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 days; study 66165)

Actual Concentration (mg/L) % Mortality Neonates per Female S.D.
0 0 16.7 2
0.14 10 23.2 7.5
0.88 0 18 4.6
1.2 10 7.9* 8.3
4.73 100 0* 0
8.35 100 0* 0

*indicates a significant difference from control

C12AS = C12 -alkyl sulfate.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
90% or greater survival in controls, 15 or more young per surviving female
Conclusions:
The 7-day NOEC of C12AS (C12-alkyl sulfate) to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 0.88 mg/L, based on measured concentrations of test substance.
Executive summary:

In a 7 -day chronic toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C12 -AS (C12 -alkyl sulfate) at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L, and measured concentrations of 0, 0.14, 0.88, 1.20, 4.73, and 8.35 mg/L under flow-through conditions. The 7 -day NOEC based on measured concentrations was 0.88 mg/L, based on the most sensitive endpoint (reproduction). The toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the validity critieria as stated in the study protocol.

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
17 Oct 1990 - 1 Feb 1991
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD 202, part 2
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: all nominal test concentrations
- Sampling method: freshly prepared stock solutions, freshly prepared medium (day 0), medium (day 19);
- additional testing: storage at -5°C was controlled via additional running of test at test conditions without daphnids with prompt analysis
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: at -5°C
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Strain/clone: RCC clone (company clone)
- Source: RCC


Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Post exposure observation period:
not relevant
Test temperature:
18.1-20.5 °C
pH:
7.9 ± 0.3
Dissolved oxygen:
>8.3 mg/L throughout test
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 0, 0.02, 0.06, 0.18, 0.56, 1.8 and 5.6 mg/L (active ingredient)
Nominal: 0, 0.06, 0.20, 0.63, 2.0, 6.3 and 20 mg/L (test material)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 200 mL and from day 5: 80 mL
- Type (delete if not applicable): open
- Aeration: before test until saturation
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): none
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5 animals per 200 mL beaker, 1 animal per 80 mL beaker
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10
- Biomass loading rate: 40 mL per daphnid to 80 mL per daphnid

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Deionized water plus additives
- Ca/mg ratio: 5:1

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light per day
- Light intensity: 200-600 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : mortality

Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
0.36 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
3.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Details on results:
- Other biological observations: With exception of mortality and reproduction rates, no particular signs of intoxication observed
- No. of offspring produced per day per female: 114.1 to 132.6 alive offspring reproduced per surviving adult within 21 days of exposure (corresponds to 5.4 to 6.3 offspring per day per adult)
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes
- Relevant effect levels: EC50(24h)=1.6 mg/L (1.45-1.77 mg/L C.L.)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Williams-test, one-sided, p<0.05
Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the Category Approach Justification document provided in IUCLID6 Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, WoE, 68890-70-0, 1991
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
0.36 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, WoE, 68890-70-0, 1991
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, WoE, 68890-70-0, 1991
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
3.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, WoE, 68890-70-0, 1991
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.88 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, WoE, 151-21-3, 1996
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, WoE, 151-21-3, 1996
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
other: IC20
Effect conc.:
0.94 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source, WoE, 151-21-3, 1996

Description of key information

On the basis of a QSAR-model a NOEC for the substance is calculated to be 0.508 mg/L

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
0.508 mg/L

Additional information

A weight of evidence approach is performed using experimental data of two chronic invertebrate studies available for alkylsulfate sodium salts. In the first study daphnids (Daphnia magna) were exposed to a C12-15 alkylsulfate sodium salt mixture (CAS 68890-70-0). In the second study the pure homologue C12 alkylsulfate sodium salt (CAS 151-21-3) was tested on another daphnid species (Ceriodaphnia dubia). As the C14 -chain length is regarded to be the most toxic in chronic tests on aquatic organisms (OECD SIDS, 2007), the C12-15 alkyl sulfate sodium salt mixture (CAS 68890-70-0) is expected to be comparable to the C12 -14 alkyl sulfate ammonium salt mixture (CAS 90583 -11 -2) and thus a read-across is possible. The data available for the pure homologue C12 were evaluated since this chain length is the main component of the mixture C12-14 alkyl sulfate sodium salts (CAS 90583 -11 -2) with an amount of 45-80%.

In the non-GLP study of Memmert (Hansa, 1991), which was conducted equivalent to OECD guideline 202, part 2, Daphnia magna was exposed to C12-15 alkyl sulfate sodium salts over 21 days in a static system. The test resulted in a NOEC of 0.14 mg/L for mortality and in a NOEC of 1.2 mg/L which is more relevant for a chronic test conducted to evaluate sublethal effects. This NOEC is within the same range as the result reported in a reproduction study of Lauth (P&G, 1996) conducted with the pure homologue C12. In that test Ceriodaphnia dubia was exposed in a flow-through system over 7 days. The resulting NOEC for reproduction was 0.88 mg/L.

From the reported data it could be concluded that the NOEC for the mixture C12-14 alkyl sulfate ammonium salts would be in the same range as the NOEC values summarized above. Nevertheless, a QSAR-calculation is conducted by using a model reported by Dyer et al. (1997) evaluated on the basis of chronic tests on Ceriodaphnia dubia. In the chronic tests the daphnids were exposed to alkyl sulfates of different chain lengths and the resulting NOEC-values were used in the model. By taking into account a mixture composition of maximum contents of 70% C12, 25% C14 and 5% C15 for the mixture C12-14 alkyl sulfate ammonium salts the QSAR-calculation resulted in a NOEC value for reproduction of 0.508 mg/L. This value is used with an assessment factor of 5 for the PNEC-calculation.

References:

Dyer et al. (1997). Development of a chronic toxicity structure-activity relationship for alkyl sulfates.Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality 11, 335-343.

OECD SIDS Initial Assessment Report For SIAM 25, 19. October 2007