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Toxicological information

Specific investigations: other studies

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
specific investigations: other studies
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Non-GLP, non guideline animal experimental research study, published in peer reviewed literature. Restrictions in design and reporting but otherwise adequate for reporting.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Experimental research on toxicity of furfural
Author:
Castellino N, Elmino O, Rozera G
Year:
1963
Bibliographic source:
Archives of Environmental Health 1963; 7: 574 582

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Inhalation exposure 4 hours/day/5 days per week until death (<80 days)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of method:
in vivo
Endpoint addressed:
respiratory irritation

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Furfural
- Physical state: Amber coloured oily liquid
- No further details reported

Test animals

Species:
rabbit
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
not specified
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
No details reported

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on exposure:
Exposure: 200, 500 add 1000 mg/m3/h for 4 hours/day, 5 days per week until death.
1g furfural was evaporated in 1000 L air, with flow of 1000 L of air per hour.
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: Metallic cylindrical cage, volume 0.288 m3
- Source and rate of air: 1000L air/hour produced by a compressor, measured and heated.
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The air flow bubbled through a furfural water solution, heated by water bath. The furfural solution was renewed hourly. Even distribution was achieved by use of an agitator in the cage.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
No data
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Until death (<80 days)
Frequency of treatment:
4 hours/day, 5 days/week,
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
200, 500 and 1000 mg/m3/hour by inhalation
Basis:
nominal conc.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
No data
Control animals:
no

Examinations

Examinations:
Limited toxicological parameters assessed, including kidney and liver function and histopathologiacl assessment.
Positive control:
none

Results and discussion

Details on results:
At 1000 mg/m3/h the rabbits the rabbits died after 8-10 days of exposure. There were signs of irritation of the conjunctiva and the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract at the end of each exposure. At autopsy, the lungs appeared congested and oedematous. There were no further detailed assessments of the animals or histopathology at this exposure level.

Rabbits died after 17-20 days exposure to 500 mg/m3/h. There was a significant reduction in the glomerular filtration and maximal tubular excretion capacity values indicative of renal impairment, which was confirmed by histopathological findings of minor glomerular and tubular lesions. There was no effect on hepatic function. There was a normochromic anaemia with slight signs of hyperplasia of the erytroblastic medullar parenchyma but number of platelets, fibrinogen and coagulation tests were normal.

Animals exposed to 200 mg/m3 showed no signs of intoxication (biochemical or histopathological) after 60-80 days exposure.

Any other information on results incl. tables

At 1000 mg/m3/h the rabbits the rabbits died after 8-10 days of exposure. There were signs of irritation of the conjunctiva and the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract at the end of each exposure. At autopsy, the lungs appeared congested and oedematous. There were no further detailed assessments of the animals or histopathology at this exposure level. Rabbits died after 17-20 days exposure to 500 mg/m3/h. There was a significant reduction in the glomerular filtration and maximal tubular excretion capacity values indicative of renal impairment, which was confirmed by histopathological findings of minor glomerular and tubular lesions. There was no effect on hepatic function. There was a normochromic anaemia with slight signs of hyperplasia of the erytroblastic medullar parenchyma but number of platelets, fibrinogen and coagulation tests were normal. Animals exposed to 200 mg/m3 showed no signs of intoxication (biochemical or histopathological) after 60-80 days exposure.

Biochemical measurements of rabbits exposed to 500 mg/m3/hour (death after 17 -20 exposures) indicated some renal impairment as evidenced by a reduction in glomerular filtration and maximal tubular excretion capacity values. This was confirmed by histopathological findings of minor glomerular and tubular lesions. Hepatic function however was normal

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Rabbits showed signs of irritation of the conjunctivae and the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract after exposure to 1000 mg/m3 for 4 hours, 5 days per week until death (8-10 days).
Executive summary:

Groups of rabbits were exposed, whole body, 4 hours/day for 5 days/week until death, to furfural at concentrations of 200, 500 or 1000 mg/m3/hour.

 

At 1000 mg/m3/h the rabbits the rabbits died after 8-10 days of exposure. There were signs of irritation of the conjunctiva and the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract at the end of each exposure. At autopsy, the lungs appeared congested and oedematous. There were no further detailed assessments of the animals or histopathology at this exposure level.

 

Rabbits died after 17-20 days exposure to 500 mg/m3/h. There was a significant reduction in the glomerular filtration and maximal tubular excretion capacity values indicative of renal impairment, which was confirmed by histopathological findings of minor glomerular and tubular lesions. There was no effect on hepatic function. There was a normochromic anaemia with slight signs of hyperplasia of the erytroblastic medullar parenchyma but number of platelets, fibrinogen and coagulation tests were normal. The anaemia is considered to be due to myeloininhibitory effect.

 

Animals exposed to 200 mg/m3 showed no signs of intoxication (biochemical or histopathological) after 60-80 days exposure.