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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Description of key information

Two studies: a seedling emergence test according to EPA OPPTS 850.4100 and OPPTS 850.4225, and a vegetative vigor test according to OPPTS 850.4150 and OPPTS 850.4250.  The overall conclusion on endpoint for PNEC derivation was for use of the NOEC from the vegetative vigor test, in the most sensitive species which was sugarbeet, equivalent to 26 mg furfural/kg soil dw .

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for terrestrial plants:
26 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

A seedling emergence test was conducted on 10 plant species with furfural (as a formulated product containing 90% w/w furfural) at nominal dose rates of 31, 52.2, 88.5, 150, 254 and 430 L product/ha. Plant seeds were grown in treated soil and observed 21 days after emergence. The lowest NOEC was 31 L product/ha (i.e. 32 kg furfural/ha). This value is equivalent to 43 mg furfural/kg soil dw (assuming a soil depth of 5 cm and a soil density of 1500 kg dry soil/m3). According to the endpoint specific guidance on terrestrial organisms (R7c), the results of this test can be used as an estimate of the chronic toxicity.

A vegetative vigor test was performed in the same plant species with the same formulated product, exposing plants for 21 days to nominal dose rates of 18.3, 52.3, 75, 150, 290 and 430 L product/ha. The lowest NOEC was 18.3 L product/ha (i.e. 19.1 kg furfural/ha), which is equivalent to 26 mg furfural/kg soil dw (assuming a soil depth of 5 cm and a soil density of 1500 kg dry soil/m3). According to the endpoint specific guidance on terrestrial organisms (R7c), the results of a vegetative vigor test are considered as short-term toxicity data. However, given the endpoint from the seedling emergence test (NOEC 43 mg furfural/kg soil dw), the NOEC from the vegetative vigor test was the lower endpoint. This endpoint is used to derive a PNEC .