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Environmental fate & pathways

Phototransformation in air

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phototransformation in air
Type of information:
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
- QMRF: see 'Overall remarks, attachments'.
- QPRF: see 'Executive summary'.
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Calculation using AOPWIN v1.92
GLP compliance:
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (from EPISuite CAS inventory): 2-Propenoic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl ester
- Smiles Code: O=C(OCCO)C=C
Estimation method (if used):
- Computer programme: SRC AopWin v1.92;
- Concentration of OH radicals: 5E+05 molecules/cm³ (northern hemisphere);
- Time frame: 24-hour day;
- Degradation rate constant: 15.2040 E-12 cm³/molecule·s;
- Temperature for which rate constant was calculated: 25 °C.
25.326 h
Test condition:
half-life calculated for the following conditions: sensitizer for indirect photolysis: OH; 0.5 E06 OH/cm³, 24h day; substance presumably within applicability domain

SUMMARY (AOP v1.92):


Hydrogen Abstraction

5.8590 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec

Reaction with N, S and -OH

0.1400 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec

Addition to Triple Bonds

0.0000 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec

Addition to Olefinic Bonds

9.2050 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec

Addition to Aromatic Rings

0.0000 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec

Addition to Fused Rings

0.0000 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec

Overall OH Rate Constant

15.2040 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec


1.055 Days (24-hr day; 0.5E6 OH/cm3)


25.326 Hrs

Executive summary:




See “Test material identity”


General information



Date of QPRF

See “Data Source (Reference)”


QPRF author and contact details

See “Data Source (Reference)”




(OECD Principle 1)


Phototransformation in air

Dependent variable

Hydroxyl reaction rate constant (cm3/molecule*sec)



Model or submodel name


Model version


Reference to QMRF

QMRF: Estimation of Atmospheric Degradation Using AOPWIN v1.92 (EPI Suite v4.11): Hydroxyl Radical Reaction

Predicted value (model result)

See “Results and discussion”

Input for prediction

- Chemical structure via CAS number or SMILES

Descriptor values

- Structure fragments


(OECD Principle 2)

Domain (On-Line AOPWIN User’s Guide):

As the complete training sets for AOPWIN's estimation methodology are not available, describing a precise estimation domain for this methodology is not possible. There is no information on the number of instances of fragments in the training dataset.

If the substance is a member of one of the following chemical classes, the substance is probably within the applicability domain of the model (based on information by other authors, e.g. Posthumus and Slooff, 2001):

alkanes, haloalkanes, alkenes, haloalkenes, polyenes, terpenes, alkynes, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, glycols, ethers, esters, epoxides, thiols, thioethers, aliphatic amines, hydrazines, nitrites, nitrates, nitriles, P-containing organics, aromatic compounds (alkylbenzenes, halobenzenes, phenols, PAHs, styrene, methoxybenzene, aniline, nitrobenzene, biphenyl, dibenzofurans, dibenzodioxins)


The substance is not within the applicability domain of the model if it is a perhalogenated alkane.

Not Fulfilled

Substance is a secondary, tertiary and heterocyclic amine. Estimated values highly uncertain.

Not Fulfilled


The uncertainty of the prediction
(OECD principle 4)

- n = 667

- correlation coefficient r2= 0.963

- standard deviation = 0.218

- absolute mean error = 0.127

- 90% of the estimated rate constants within a factor of two of the experimental data

- 95% of the estimated rate constants within a factor of three of the experimental data


The chemical mechanisms according to the model underpinning the predicted result
(OECD principle 5)

Reaction rate constants for hydroxyl radicals are the summation of the following mechanisms:

(1) Hydrogen abstraction

(2) Reaction with specific nitrogen and sulphur fragments and reaction with hydroxyl (OH) fragments such as alcohols and phenols

(3) Addition to triple bonds

(4) Addition to olefinic bonds

(5) Addition to aromatic rings

(6) Addition to fused rings

The model works according to the group contribution method which uses fragments and the corresponding reaction values to estimate the reaction rate constant of a given substance.


- R Posthumus and W Slooff (2001). Implementation of QSARs in ecotoxicological risk assessments. RIVM report 601516 003. Online:

- US EPA (2012). On-Line AOPWIN User’s Guide.

Description of key information

After evaporation or exposure to air, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate will be rapidly degraded by photochemical processes. The substance has an estimated half-life in air of ~25.33 hours. As the cut-off time for reaching the stratosphere is 2 days, the substance is considered to have no potential for reaching the stratosphere and/or long-range atmospheric transport.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information


In Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, it is laid down that information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests, provided that the conditions set out in Annex XI (of the same Regulation) are met. Furthermore according to Article 25 of the same Regulation testing on vertebrate animals shall be undertaken only as a last resort.


According to Annex XI of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (Q)SAR results can be used if (1) the scientific validity of the (Q)SAR model has been established, (2) the substance falls within the applicability domain of the (Q)SAR model, (3) the results are adequate for the purpose of classification and labeling and/or risk assessment and (4) adequate and reliable documentation of the applied method is provided.


For the assessment of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate Q)SAR results were used for aerobic biodegradability in water. The criteria listed in Annex XI of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 are considered to be adequately fulfilled and therefore the endpoint(s) sufficiently covered and suitable for risk assessment. Therefore, further experimental studies on aerobic biodegradability in water are not provided.