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Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

melting point/freezing point
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No GLP study but other quality assurance
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
EU Method A.1 (Melting / Freezing Temperature)
GLP compliance:
other quality assurance
Type of method:
thermal analysis

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Flue dust, copper-refining
EC Number:
EC Name:
Flue dust, copper-refining
Cas Number:
flue dust, copper refining
Details on test material:
Sample collection made according to ECI/REACH Copper Consortium Standards Protocols (see IUCLID section 1.4)
The studied flue dust samples are fine- grained, the D50 value is for all samples below 20µm. They contain 9.18- 51.0% lead, 0.52- 9.58% copper, 6.3- 43.9% zinc, 0.09- 2.8% arsenic, and 1.15- 14.7% sulfur (see iuclid 4.23)
B11 flue dust from Secondary smelters (representative), sample code: MC_B11_522_xxx_0904, lab code: 09TT03192
B11 flue dust from primary smelter (blast furnace) (dried filtered slime, homogenized), sample code: KGHM_B11_006_0904, lab code: 09TT03514
B11 flue dust from primary smelter (electric furnace) (composite, from one silo), sample code: KGHM_B11_005_0904, lab code: 09TT03513

Results and discussion

Melting / freezing point
Melting / freezing pt.:
100 - 170 °C

Any other information on results incl. tables



Flue dust

Flue dust

Flue dust





Outotec code




First endothermic peak

139 - 175 °C

100 - 123 °C

869 - 1017 °C

Decomposition and/or melting starts

139 °C

100 °C

170 °C

During the melting tests of the three (3) flue dust samples were heated in Al2O3crucible using nitrogen atmosphere.


The endothermic peaks in the curve are at the temperature ranges 139 – 175 °C, 748 – 760 °C, 1202 – 1236 °C, 1304 – 1323 °C and 1470 – 1482 °C. The mass of the sample decreases at the temperature range 139 – 175 °C, again at ~ 400 – 780 °C and then > 1000 °C. These phenomena indicate, that some components of the sample start to decompose (for instance chloride - hydrate) and to melt (for instance zinc chloride hydrate) already at e temperature range 139 - 175 °C. 


The endothermic peaks in the curve are at the temperature ranges 100 – 123 °C, 259 – 308 °C, 620 – 695 °C, 742 – 835 °C and 913 – 1031 °C. The mass of the sample starts to decrease at the temperature ~800 °C. First peaks indicate that sample has been a bit wet or/and hydrated. Next peaks indicate decomposition and the last peaks melting and evaporation.   


The endothermic peaks in the curve are at the temperature ranges 869 – 1017 °C and 1034 – 1194 °C. The mass of the sample decreases at the temperature range ~170 – 320 °C and strongly at 869 – 1017 °C together with the first peak. These phenomena indicate, that some components decompose and evaporate before melting, which starts at the temperature range 1034 – 1194 °C. The main components of this dust sample are PbS (melting point 1118 °C), ZnS (melting point 1185 °C) and carbon.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

Based on the TG/DSC measurements, the decomposition and melting of the hydrate-containing flue dusts 09TT03192 and 09TT03513 start at 139oC and 100°C while for the other sample 09TT03514 the decomposition starts at 150oC.