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Physical & Chemical properties

Melting point / freezing point

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Endpoint:
melting point/freezing point
Type of information:
calculation (if not (Q)SAR)
Remarks:
Migrated phrase: estimated by calculation
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail
Remarks:
Older study, conducted prior to standard methods.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Hot and cold pressing was used to prepare homogeneous samples of 0-90% C. Samples were then analyzed by differential thermal analysis and subjected to quenching studies. The eutectic temperature was then calculated.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
other: Differential Thermal Analysis and High Temperature Quenching
Key result
Melting / freezing pt.:
ca. 2 525 °C
Atm. press.:
other: Local ambient pressure
Remarks on result:
other: Eutectic point of WC-W2C
Key result
Melting / freezing pt.:
2 710 - 2 760 °C
Atm. press.:
other: Local ambient pressure
Remarks on result:
other: Eutectic range between W and W2C and beta-W2C
Conclusions:
Differential thermal analysis and quenching study calculations identify 2525 degrees C as the eutectic point of WC-W2C, and 2710-2760 degrees C as the eutectic range between W and W2C and beta-W2C.
Executive summary:

Due to the similar chemical constituency and structure between the source substance (tungsten carbide) and the target substance (RM of W2C+WC), the physico-chemical properties would be expected to be the same or sufficiently similar such that application of read-across is appropriate for this endpoint. For more details, refer to the attached read-across approach document.

Endpoint:
melting point/freezing point
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Remarks:
Data from peer-reviewed handbook or collection of data.
Justification for type of information:
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH: The hypothesis is that properties are likely to be similar or follow a similar pattern because of the presence of a common metal ion, in this case tungstate.
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES):
Source: Tungsten Carbide
Target: RM W2C + WC
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION: See Annex 1 in CSR
4. DATA MATRIX: See Annex 1 in CSR
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Data in this peer-reviewed publication were taken from many sources, including both compilations and primary literature. Where conflicts were found, the value deemed most reliable were chosen for inclusion in the handbook. Reference sources were not provided for this parameter, nor was the experimental method.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Key result
Melting / freezing pt.:
2 785 °C
Atm. press.:
1 013 hPa
Remarks on result:
other: assumed to be tested under standard conditions
Conclusions:
The read-across substance, WC, has a reported melting point in the range 2785-2920 deg.C. Additionally, calculations put the beginning of fusion : between 2750 and 2780°C, and end of fusion: between 2750 and over 3000°C [extrapolated to 3150°C].
Executive summary:

Due to the similar chemical constituency and structure between the source substance (tungsten carbide) and the target substance (RM of W2C+WC), the physico-chemical properties would be expected to be the same or sufficiently similar such that application of read-across is appropriate for this endpoint. For more details, refer to the attached read-across approach document.

Endpoint:
melting point/freezing point
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Remarks:
Data from peer-reviewed handbook or collection of data.
Justification for type of information:
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH: The hypothesis is that properties are likely to be similar or follow a similar pattern because of the presence of a common metal ion, in this case tungstate.
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES):
Source: Tungsten Carbide
Target: RM W2C + WC
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION: See Annex 1 in CSR
4. DATA MATRIX: See Annex 1 in CSR
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Data in this peer-reviewed publication were taken from many sources, including both compilations and primary literature. Where conflicts were found, the value deemed most reliable were chosen for inclusion in the handbook. Reference sources were not provided for this parameter, nor was the experimental method.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Key result
Melting / freezing pt.:
2 785 °C
Atm. press.:
1 013 hPa
Remarks on result:
other: assumed to be tested under standard conditions
Conclusions:
The read-across substance, WC, has a reported melting point in the range 2785-2920 deg.C. Additionally, calculations put the beginning of fusion : between 2750 and 2780°C, and end of fusion: between 2750 and over 3000°C [extrapolated to 3150°C].
Executive summary:

Due to the similar chemical constituency and structure between the source substance (tungsten carbide) and the target substance (RM of W2C+WC), the physico-chemical properties would be expected to be the same or sufficiently similar such that application of read-across is appropriate for this endpoint. For more details, refer to the attached read-across approach document.

Endpoint:
melting point/freezing point
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data from peer-reviewed handbook or collection of data.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Data in this peer-reviewed publication were taken from many sources, including both compilations and primary literature. Where conflicts were found, the value deemed most reliable were chosen for inclusion in the handbook. Reference sources were not provided for this parameter, nor was the experimental method.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Melting / freezing pt.:
2 820 - 2 920 °C
Atm. press.:
1 013 hPa
Remarks on result:
other: assumed to be tested under standard conditions
Conclusions:
The read-across substance, WC, has a reported melting point in the range 2785-2920 deg.C. Additionally, calculations put the beginning of fusion : between 2750 and 2780°C, and end of fusion: between 2750 and over 3000°C [extrapolated to 3150°C].

Description of key information

The read-across substance, WC, has a reported melting point in the range 2785-2920 deg.C. Additionally, calculations put the beginning of fusion : between 2750 and 2780°C, and end of fusion: between 2750 and over 3000°C [extrapolated to 3150°C].

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Melting / freezing point at 101 325 Pa:
2 785 °C

Additional information

Due to the similar chemical constituency and structure between the source substance (tungsten carbide) and the target substance (RM of W2C+WC), the physico-chemical properties would be expected to be the same or sufficiently similar such that application of read-across is appropriate for this endpoint. For more details, refer to the attached read-across approach document.