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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
7. September 1988 - 5. October 1988
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
GLP. COMMENTS: > = 60 % biodegradation within 10 d
Justification for type of information:
Read across from the dodecyl methacrylate category member donor substance.
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
see attached category document
RE_501_C12-C22 Long Chain Alkyl Methacrylates
This is a category (C12-C22 Long Chain Alkyl Methacrylates) with clear trends in the physicochemical properties of its members, related to molecular weight, molecular size and hydrophilicity.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I))
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Degradation - biotic degradation: modified MITI test, EEC Dir. 84/449, published in: Official Journal of the European Communities, No. L251/199
The biodegradation test was performed as a respirometric test by using a "Sapromat". The inoculated medium with the test substance which was
the only carbon source was stirred in closed flasks at 20 +/- 3 °C in the dark. The oxygen consumption was determined by measuring the quantity of oxygen required to maintain a constant pressure in the apparatus. Evolved C02 was adsorbed by granular soda lime containing an indicator.
The biodegradation was calculated according to the following equation:
(BOD - B)
Percentage degradation = -------------------------- x 100
ThOD (or COD)
BOD = biochemical oxygen demand of the test compound (experimental; in mg) measured on the BOD curve,
B = oxygen consumption of basal culture medium to which the inoculum is added (experimental: in mg) measured on the BOD curve,
ThOD = theoretical oxygen demand required when the test compound is completely oxidized (theoretical; in mg),
COD = chemical oxygen demand (experimental: in mg)

The degradation was followed over a period of 28 days. It was recorded as a continuous curve.
Finally, the biodegradation of the test compound was expressed as the percentage of the theoretical oxygen demand.
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
other: activated sludge (mixture of 2 storage lakes, 3 municipal sewage plants and 1 industrial sewage plant)
Details on inoculum:
- Source of inoculum/activated sludge (e.g. location, sampling depth, contamination history, procedure): MITI-test
Inoculum:
Sludge sampling sites were: Rivers: Rhine (south of Düsseldor f, port Ruhrort ) , Lenne ( Schmallenberg)
Lakes: storage lakes (Bigge and Henne)
Municipal sewage plants: Essen (south), Maumke, Nordenau
Industrial sewage plant: Dusseldorf, south (Henkel)
From the rivers and lakes one litre each of surface water and surface soil of the beach which were in contact with the atmosphere were withdrawn.
From each sewage treatment plant one litre of recycled sewage was withdrawn.

Date of sampling: 5th September 1988

Preparation of the inoculum:
The sludge samples collected from the sampling sites were mixed by stirring in a single container. The soil samples were shaken for one hour with distilled water, and the supernatant was mixed with the sludge samples. The mixture settled. The floating foreign matter was removed and the
supernatant was filtered with No. 2 filter paper. The filtrate was adjusted to pH 7.0 ± l .0 with sodium hydroxide or phosphoric acid, transferred
into a culture tank and aerated.

Inoculum without adaptation
Aliquots were withdrawn from the combked samples (soil and sewage sludge; see Preparation of inoculum), centrifuged and diluted to
provide sufficient volume for a 1 % inoculum for each test vessel (corresponding to 30 mg dry matter/l test medium).
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
100 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Reference substance:
aniline
Preliminary study:
Preliminary Test:
A preliminary test was performed to determine whether the inoculum was inhibited by the usually used concentration of the test substances in the
Miti-test (100 mg/l).
Inoculum:
Source: Samples of activated sludge were withdrawn from a sewage plant mainly fed with municipal sewage.
Pretreatment:
The amount of solids was calculated and the wet sludge suspended with Ringer's solution to yield a concentration of 3 g suspended solids per litre.
Test procedure:
For the performance of the test 4 test vessels were prepared:
Vessel 1 and 2 (control): basal culture medium + peptone (50 mg/l)
Vessel 3: basal culture medium + peptone (50 mg/l) + test chemical (100 mg/l)
Vessel 4 : basal culture medium + peptone (50 mg/l) + test chemical ( 50 mg/l)
The vessels were closed and placed in the "Sapromat". After equalization of temperature and pressure (30 min) the culture vessels and
corresponding pressure controller were connected.
During the following test period (6 days) the oxygen consumption was recorded automatically.
Test performance:
Test procedure:
For the performance of the test 8 test vessels were prepared: Vessel 1 and 2: deionized water + test chemical (100 mg/l)
Vessel 3 and 4: basal culture medium + test chemical (100 mg/l) + inoculum (30 mg
dry matter/l)
Vessel 5 and 6: basal culture medium + reference substance (100 mg/l) + inoculum
(30 mg dry matter/l)
Vessel 7 and 8: basal culture medium + inoculum (30 mg dry matter/l)
The substances were added directly to the vessels. The vessels were closed and placed in the "Sapromat". After equalization of temperature and
pressure the culture vessels and corresponding pressure controller were connected. During the following test period the oxygen consumption was
recorded automatically.
Type of analysis:
For the determination of the oxygen consumption, a respirometer was used to maintain the pressure constant ("Sapromat", Voith, Heidenheim). The
consumed oxygen was recorded as BOD/l.

Temperature control during the test:
The test vessels were placed in the temperature controlled water bath of the Sapromat. The temperature was 22 °C.
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
ca. 7.5
Sampling time:
2 d
Remarks on result:
other: Read across from the category member donor substance n-dodecyl methacrylate CAS: 142-90-5.
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
ca. 21
Sampling time:
3 d
Remarks on result:
other: Read across from the category member donor substance n-dodecyl methacrylate CAS: 142-90-5.
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
ca. 60
Sampling time:
10 d
Remarks on result:
other: Read across from the category member donor substance n-dodecyl methacrylate CAS: 142-90-5.
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
ca. 72
Sampling time:
15 d
Remarks on result:
other: Read across from the category member donor substance n-dodecyl methacrylate CAS: 142-90-5.
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
ca. 88.5
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Read across from the category member donor substance n-dodecyl methacrylate CAS: 142-90-5.
Details on results:
After a lag-phase of less than 19.5 hours oxygen consumption took place. The samples containing pepton and test substance showed a higher
oxygen uptake than the samples containing only pepton. The consumption rates increased with increasing concentration of the test substance. This
indicates that the test substance causes no inhibition but can be used as energy source additionally to pepton.
Miti-Test:
Percent biodegradation of the test substance: The final biodegradation was 88.5%.
Results with reference substance:
Final biodegradation: 93.8 %
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
10 day window criteria was fulfilled
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
Read across from the category member donor substance n-dodecyl methacrylate CAS: 142-90-5.
Dodecyl methacrylate is regarded as readily biodegradable based upon a study according to EEC Directive 84/449/EEC, Degradation – biodegradation, Modified MITI Test (OECD 301 C). 88.5 % biodegradation within 28 days. There was > = 60 % biodegradation within 10 days.
Executive summary:

Read across from the category member donor substance n-dodecyl methacrylate CAS: 142-90-5.

The ready biodegradation of dodecyl methacrylate was investigated in a study conducted according to EEC Directive 84/449/EEC, Degradation – biodegradation, Modified MITI Test, published in official Journal of the European Communities No. L251/199) over a period of 28 days using sludge samples from different places like rivers, lakes, municipal and industrial sewage plants as inoculum. The biodegradation rate was determined by measurement of O2 consumption. Inoculum blank and procedural/functional control with the reference substance aniline was performed.

After 28 days the degradation of Dodecyl methacrylate reached 88.5 %.The functional control reached the pass level 93.8% after 28 d. 60 % degradation was found after 10 days.

This study is regarded as reliable without restriction and satisfies the guideline requirements for ready biodegradation.Dodecyl methacrylate proved to be readily biodegradable.

For read across purposes according to ECHA's RAAF (2017), this study is applicable with a high level of confidence.

NOTE: Any of data in this dataset are disseminated by the European Union on a right-to-know basis and this is not a publication in the same sense as a book or an article in a journal. The right of ownership in any part of this information is reserved by the data owner(s). The use of this information for any other, e.g. commercial purpose is strictly reserved to the data owners and those persons or legal entities having paid the respective access fee for the intended purpose.

 

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1999
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study OECD 301 B (modified Sturm test), GLP. COMMENTS: > = 60 % biodegradation within 10 d
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 B (Ready Biodegradability: CO2 Evolution Test)
Version / remarks:
17th July 1992
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
sewage, predominantly domestic, non-adapted
Details on inoculum:
- Source of inoculum/activated sludge: sewage sludge, from the water treatment plant Emeraude (SIARR), F-76141 Petit-Quevilly, France

- Preparation of inoculum for exposure: initially sieving sewage sludge and centrifuging three times for at least 5 min. for each centrifugation, the supernatant was rejected and the pellet was redispersed in mineral medium
- Preconditioning: air was bubbled through for 7 days, the temerature was 22 °C ± 2 °C
-Mineral medium: prepared according to OECD and EEC recvommendations


Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
10 mg/L
Based on:
other: TOC
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
CO2 evolution
Details on study design:
The test substance was dispersed in reconstituted water (OECD mineral medium) prepared from deionised water with a conductivity < 10 µS/cm.
CO2 scrubbed air was bubbeled through the flasks over the test period.
- pH: 7.53 - 8.50
- temperature: 20 °C - 24 °C
Reference substance:
other: sodium acetate
Parameter:
% degradation (CO2 evolution)
Value:
> 100
Sampling time:
28 d
Parameter:
% degradation (CO2 evolution)
Value:
98.36
Sampling time:
21 d
Parameter:
% degradation (CO2 evolution)
Value:
73.88
Sampling time:
12 d
Parameter:
% degradation (CO2 evolution)
Value:
29.72
Sampling time:
5 d
Results with reference substance:
Control substance: sodium acetate
Kinetic: 8 days: 38.22 % degradation
14 days: 62.44 % degradation
28 days: 94.26 % degradation
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
Under the experimental conditions, Methacrylic acid ester C12-C16 linear and branched (LIMA) is readily biodegradable in the 28-d modified Sturm test according to OECD 301 B.
There was > = 60 % biodegradation within 10 days.
Executive summary:

Under the experimental conditions, Methacrylic acid ester C12-C16 linear and branched (LIMA) is readily biodegradable in the 28-d modified Sturm test according to OECD 301 B. The 10-day window was achieved.

At the end of the 10-day window on the 12th day the biodegradation of the test substance was 74% and according to Commission Directive 93/21/EEC and OECD guideline No. 301B, the value of 60% has to be reached in this 10-day window within 28 days in order to classify the test substance as readily biodegradable. Based on this Directive, Methacrylic acid ester C12-C16 linear and branched (LIMA) is therefore readily biodegradable in the 28-day modified Sturm test under these experimental conditions. However, the biodegradation rate was > 100 % for Methacrylic acid ester C12-C16 linear and branched (LIMA) after 28 days.

NOTE: Any of data in this dataset are disseminated by the European Union on a right-to-know basis and this is not a publication in the same sense as a book or an article in a journal. The right of ownership in any part of this information is reserved by the data owner(s). The use of this information for any other, e.g. commercial purpose is strictly reserved to the data owners and those persons or legal entities having paid the respective access fee for the intended purpose.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
07.09.1988 - 05.10.1988
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
GLP. COMMENTS: > = 60 % biodegradation within 10 d
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Degradation - biotic degradation: modified MITI test, EEC Dir. 84/449, published in: Official Journal of the European Communities, No. L251/199
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
other: activated sludge (mixture of 2 storage lakes, 3 municipal sewage plants and 1 industrial sewage plant
Details on inoculum:
- Source of inoculum/activated sludge (e.g. location, sampling depth, contamination history, procedure): MITI-test
Inoculum:
Sludge sampling sites were: Rivers: Rhine (south of Düsseldor f, port Ruhrort ) , Lenne ( Schmallenberg)
Lakes: storage lakes (Bigge and Henne)
Municipal sewage plants: Essen (south), Maumke, Nordenau
Industrial sewage plant: Dusseldorf, south (Henkel)
From the rivers and lakes one litre each of surface water and surface soil of the beach which were in contact with the atmosphere were withdrawn.
From each sewage treatment plant one litre of recycled sewage was withdrawn.

Date of sampling: 5th September 1988

Preparation of the inoculum:
The sludge samples collected from the sampling sites were mixed by stirring in a single container. The soil samples were shaken for one hour with distilled water, and the supernatant was mixed with the sludge samples. The mixture settled. The floating foreign matter was removed and the
supernatant was filtered with No. 2 filter paper. The filtrate was adjusted to pH 7.0 +/- l .0 with sodium hydroxide or phosphoric acid, transferred
into a culture tank and aerated.

Inoculum without adaptation
Aliquots were withdrawn from the combked samples (soil and sewage sludge; see Preparation of inoculum), centrifuged and diluted to
provide sufficient volume for a 1 % inoculum for each test vessel (corresponding to 30 mg dry matter/l test medium).
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
100 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
Test temperature: 22 °C
Reference substance:
aniline
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
12.8
Sampling time:
5 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
59.2
Sampling time:
10 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
62.2
Sampling time:
11 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
76.6
Sampling time:
28 d
Details on results:
After a lag-phase of less than 19.5 hours oxygen consumption took place. The samples containing pepton and test substance showed a higher oxygen uptake than the samples containing only pepton. The consumption rates increased with increasing concentration of the test substance. This indicates that the test substance causes no inhibition but can be used as energy source additionally to pepton.
Results with reference substance:
65.6 % degradation after 7 days
84.0 % degradation after 28 days
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
Methacrylic acid ester 13.6 is regarded as readily biodegradable based upon a study according to EEC Directive 84/449/EEC, Degradation – biodegradation, Modified MITI Test. 76.6 % biodegradation within 28 days.
Executive summary:

The ready biodegradation of Methacrylic acid ester 13.6 was investigated in a study conducted according to EEC Directive 84/449/EEC, Degradation – biodegradation, Modified MITI Test, published in official Journal of the European Communities No. L251/199) over a period of 28 days using sludge samples from different places like rivers, lakes, municipal and industrial sewage plants as inoculum. The biodegradation rate was determined by measurement of O2 consumption. Inoculum blank and procedural / functional control with the reference substance aniline were performed.

After 28 days the degradation of Methacrylic acid ester 13.6 reached 76.6 %.The functional control reached the pass level 84.0 % after 28 d.

This study is regarded as reliable without restriction and satisfies the guideline requirements for ready biodegradation. Methacrylic acid ester 13.6 proved to be readily biodegradable.

NOTE: Any of data in this dataset are disseminated by the European Union on a right-to-know basis and this is not a publication in the same sense as a book or an article in a journal. The right of ownership in any part of this information is reserved by the data owner(s). The use of this information for any other, e.g. commercial purpose is strictly reserved to the data owners and those persons or legal entities having paid the respective access fee for the intended purpose.

Description of key information

No study exists for the biodegradation in water for n-tetradecyl methacrylate.

Read across to the category member substance n-dodecyl methacrylate (n-DMA, CAS: 142 -90 -5), structural analogue UVCB substance C12 -C16 methacrylate (LIMA, CAS: 90551 -76 -1) and structural analogue UVCB substance 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C13-15-branched and linear alkyl esters MAS 13.6, CAS: 90552 -04 -8):

n-Dodecyl methacrylate: Biodegradation in water: screening test: readily biodegradable, biodegradation: 88.5 % after 28 days, 10 day window criteria was fulfilled, OECD 301 C, experimental data (Fraunhofer (1988)

UVCB C12 -C16 methacrylate: Biodegradation in water: screening test: readily biodegradable, biodegradation: > 100 % after 28 days, 10 day window criteria was fulfilled, OECD 301B, experimental data (Elf Atochem (2001)

MAS 13.6 ester: Biodegradation in water: screening test: readily biodegradable, biodegradation: 76.6 % after 28 days, 10 day window criteria was fulfilled, MITI (I), experimental data (Fraunhofer (1988)

The structural analogue substances Methacrylic acid ester of an alcohol mixture with a mean C-number of 13.6, LIMA and Dodecyl methacrylate proved to be readily biodegradable and were fulfilling the 10-d window criterion.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information

Read across: Dodecyl methacrylate (Fraunhofer 1988a), LIMA (a mixture of C12 to C15 linear and branched Alkyl methacrylates, CIT 2001) and a mixture of C13 and C15 alkyl methacrylates (Fraunhofer 1988b) were demonstrated to be readily biodegradable in biodegadation tests acc. OECD 301 C (modified MITI tests) and OECD 301 B (modified Sturm test). 88.5%, > 100% and 76.6 % biodegradatíon were achieved within 28 days, respectively. The 10 day window criteria were fulfilled in all three tests.