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Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for assessment.

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
equivalent or similar to guideline
other: FDA Guidelines (1966)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Sexually mature virgin females were mated with experienced young adult male rats. The dams' F1c litter was used for this study. The dams were placed on test or control diets for gestation days 6-15, incl., and were sacrificed (CO2 inhalation) on gestation day 20.
GLP compliance:
Unlikely. Study pre-dated even USFDA GLPs
Limit test:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Glycerol trinitrate
EC Number:
EC Name:
Glycerol trinitrate
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
C3H5N3O9 C3H5(NO3)3
propane-1,2,3-triyl trinitrate
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Nitroglycerin, TNG
- Substance type: technical product
- Physical state: a 10 % mixture on lactose
- Analytical purity: 9.72% +/- 0.09%
- Lot/batch No.: D17-H3
- Source: Atlas Chemical Division, ICI America Inc., Wilmington, DE

Test animals

other: Charles River CD
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS- Source: Charles River Breeding Laboratory, Wilmington, Massachusetts, USA- Age at study initiation: All animals were maturing- Fasting period before study: no data- Housing: plastic cages with metal lids, filter tops, 4 male or 5 female in each cage, some groups were subdivided to prevent fighting.- Identification of animals: ear-punches- Bedding: with hardwood chip- Diet: ad libitum, Diets were prepared weekly- Water: ad libitum- Acclimation period: 2 weeksENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS- Temperature (°F): 75+/-5- Humidity (%): 50+/-10%- Air changes (per hr): 10 air changes per hour- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light):12 hour light/12 hour dark

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: feed
unchanged (no vehicle)
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Test levels of diet were prepared fresh weekly by dilution of the concentrate with unheated feed and were analyzed after preparation. Control analyses were carried out over eight-day periods to measure evaporation of NG from the diet under cage conditions during the week. GC also was used for these analyses, but with a 63Ni detector. This information was used to calculate actual dosage received by the rats.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
24 hours/day for 10 days (gestation days 6-15, incl.)


Maternal examinations:
During pregnancy the dams were observed daily. Females were weighted day 0 and day 20 of pregnancy. The females were sacrificed (CO2 inhl.) on gestation day 20.
Ovaries and uterine content:
After necropsy the weight of uterus was recorded. The number of corpora lutea and number and position of live, dead and resorbed fetuses is recorded.
Fetal examinations:
Fetuses were then removed from the uterus, weighed, and examined for any external anomalies. Half the fetuses from each litter were then fixed inBouin's fluid, manually sectioned, and examined for soft tissue /internal organ anomalies by Wilson's method (Wilson, 1965). The remaining fetuses were fixed in 70% ethanol followed by 1% potassium hydroxide and then stained with alizarin red (Staples and Schnell, 1964). This was followed by differential decolorization and examination forskeletal anomalies

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Effect levels (maternal animals)

Remarks on result:
not measured/tested

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:yesDetails on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:See attached document, Table-No. 1.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
6.4 mg/kg bw/day
Basis for effect level:
other: teratogenicity

Fetal abnormalities

not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

The weights of the high-dose females at termination and their weight changes (excluding the uterus and contents) were significantly less than those of the control group and less than those of the two groups tested at lower doses, as indicated in the summary table above. In addition, their liver weights were significantly increased relative to their corrected body weight and increased relative to those of the two lower dose test groups. Diaphragmatic hernias occurred only in the high dose group and were believed, by the investigators, to be due to the test material. Their incidence was not significant (two-sample rank test), but they occurred in 4 / 19 of the high dose litters from this study. The incidences of unossified and incompletely ossified hyoid bones also were significantly increased compared to the controls and were increased compared to the two lower dose test groups. However, sternabrae, centra, and skull bones were not similarly affected.