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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study with acceptable restrictions, no analytical dose verification
Justification for type of information:
see attachment “Read-across concept – Human Health/Environment - Category approach for Inorganic sulfites/thiosulfates/dithionite" in section 13.
equivalent or similar to guideline
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Version / remarks:
Cited as EEC Guideline XI/681/86, Draft 4
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The chronic toxicity to the water flea Daphnia magna STRAUS was investigated in a 21 day semistatic test according to EEC Guideline XI/681/86, Draft 4, "Prolonged toxicity study with Daphnia magna: effects on reproduction".
GLP compliance:
Analytical monitoring:
Details on test solutions:
- At the beginning of the test and before changing the test solutions a stock solution of the test substance was freshly prepared. A defined amount of the substance was weighed out and suspended directly in the test medium by stirring.
- The nominal concentration of the stock solutions was 100 mg/L.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
- Source: The clone of Daphnia magna STRAUS used was supplied by Institut National de Recherche Chimique Appliquée, France, in 1978. The daphnids are cultured under standard conditions in the laboratory of ecotoxicology, BASF AG, "Ludwigshafen".
- Age of parental stock: 2-4 weeks
- Age of the animals at the start of the test: 2 -24 h
- Culture conditions: The daphnid tests are performed under the same environmental conditions as the culture itself.
- Feeding during test: During the test daphnids were fed live green algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus, cultured in a synthetic medium) daily. The algae were separated from culture medium by centrifugation, resuspended in daphnid's medium (M4) and daphnids were fed this- concentrate. The algae were stored in a refrigerator (dark, about 4°C) for 8 days (in general, maximum storage for up to 14 days). Through feeding the concentrate (maximum: 0.3 mL/50 mL test solution/day) the test solution was diluted in the worst case (Friday-Monday, 3 feedings) by 0.9 mL (= 1.8%).
Test type:
Water media type:
Limit test:
Total exposure duration:
21 d
2.2-3.2 mmol/L
Test temperature:
Dissolved oxygen:
> 7 mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 1, 5, 10 mg/l (nominal)
Details on test conditions:
- Test vessel: Numbered glass beakers, nominal volume 100 mL, covered with numbered glass caps
- Fill volume: 50 mL
- Renewal of test solution: three times per week
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1 parent animal
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10

- Source/preparation of dilution water: synthetic medium M4
- This synthetic medium has the following properties:
Total hardness 2.20 - 3.20 mmol/L
Alkalinity up to pH 4.3: 0.80 - 100 mmol/L
Molar ratio Ca/Mg: about 4:1
pH value: 7.5-8.5
Conductivity : 550 - 650 µS/cm

- Photoperiod: Artificial Iight, day/night-rhythm = 16 / 8 hours
- Light intensity: About 5 - 6 µE/(m2xS) in the range of 400 - 700 nm

- Reproduction and mortality, daily observation intervals
21 d
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
> 10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: reproduction rate and mortality
21 d
Dose descriptor:
other: LC0
Effect conc.:
> 10 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:

 Conc. (mg/L)  Survival parent animals (%)  Live young / live parent animal (%)
 0  100  108.3
 1  100  105.0
 5  100  119.2
 10  90  107.7
Validity criteria fulfilled:
In the control : - mortality of parent animals up to the end of the test was < 10%. - the mean number of live young per parent animal, which survived the test, was > 60. - the coefficient of variation of the mean number of live young per parent animal, wh
A chronic invertebrate toxicity test was conducted with the cladoceran D.magna, using sodium disulfite as test compound. A NOEC of >10 mg test item/L was derived and this data point can be used for hazard/effects asessment purposes for sodium disulfite and other sulfite compounds (read-across principles)

Description of key information

An effect of disodium disulfite on the reproduction and mortality ofDaphnia magnawas not observed in a 21-d chronic reproduction test (21 d NOEC ≥ 8.41 mg SO32-/L), indicating that sulfite/disulfite substances are not chronically toxic to freshwater invertebrates. Furthermore, ammonium is expected to possess a low toxic potential for aquatic invertebrates. Based on chronic effect concentrations, aquatic invertebrates do not appear to be sensitive at concentrations around long-term aquatic hazard classification criteria of Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008. Ammonium is a natural component of the environment, is rapidly degraded and therefore not expected to accumulate in the environment.Please refer to the respective endpoint summary for ammonium (NH4) for further details.

Based on read-across to sulfite/disulfite/thiosulfate substances and soluble ammonium substances and taking into account ubiquitousness of ammonium and sulfur, the potential of ammonium hydrogen sulfite for chronic toxicity to aquatic invertebrates is expected to be low.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Studies on the long-term toxicity of ammonium hydrogen sulfite to aquatic invertebrates are not available and, thus, read-across to sulfite/disulfite/thiosulfate and soluble ammonium substances is applied. Upon contact with water, salts of sulfur oxyacids including ammonium hydrogen sulfite dissociate into sulfur oxyacid anions and respective counterions. The potential of ammonium for long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates is addressed in the respective endpoint summary for ammonium (NH4).


Sulfite/disulfite and thiosulfate substances –Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

In a reliable key study (BASF, 1990) on the chronic toxicity of disodium disulfite (Na2S2O5) to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, an unbounded 21 d-NOEC ≥ 10 mg/L was derived for reproduction and mortality, corresponding to ≥ 8.41 mg SO32-/L. Physico-chemical properties of the test media were monitored during the test, and pH (7.5-8.0) and oxygen content (>7 mg/L) met respective validity criteria.