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Guidance on Safe Use

Guidance on Safe Use

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First-aid measures

First aid measures:
- Inhalation: Remove victim to uncontaminated area wearing self contained breathing apparatus. Keep victim warm and rested. Call a doctor. Apply
artificial respiration if breathing stopped.
- Skin contact: For liquid spillage - flush with water for at least 15 minutes. In case of frostbite spray with water for at least 15 minutes. Apply a
sterile dressing. Obtain medical assistance.
- Eye contact: Immediately flush eyes thoroughly with water for at least 15 minutes.
- Ingestion: Ingestion is not considered a potential route of exposure.

Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed:
In high concentrations may cause asphyxiation. Symptoms may include loss of mobility/consciousness. Victim may not be aware of asphyxiation.
In low concentrations may cause narcotic effects. Symptoms may include dizziness,headache, nausea and loss of co-ordination.

Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed:
None.

Fire-fighting measures

Extinguishing media:
- Suitable extinguishing media : Water spray or fog.
- Unsuitable extinguishing media : Do not use water jet to extinguish.

Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture:
Specific hazards: Exposure to fire may cause containers to rupture/explode. Supports combustion.

Hazardous combustion products: If involved in a fire the following toxic and/or corrosive fumes may be produced by thermal decomposition. Nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide.

Advice for fire-fighters:
Specific methods:
If possible, stop flow of product.
Use fire control measures appropriate for the surrounding fire. Exposure to fire and heat radiation may cause gas receptacles to rupture.
If leaking do not spray water onto container. Water surrounding area (from protected position) to contain fire.
Cool endangered receptacles with water spray jet from a protected position.
Prevent water used in emergency cases from entering sewers and drainage systems.
Use water spray or fog to knock down fire fumes if possible.

Special protective equipment for fire fighters:
Wear gas tight chemically protective clothing in combination with self contained breathing apparatus.
Standard EN 137 - Self-contained open-circuit compressed air breathing apparatus with full face mask.
EN 943-2: Protective clothing against liquid and gaseous chemicals, aerosols and solid particles. Gas-tight chemical protective suits for emergency
teams.

Accidental release measures

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures:
Try to stop release.
Monitor concentration of released product.
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus when entering area unless atmosphere is proved to be safe.
Use protective clothing.
Evacuate area.
Ensure adequate air ventilation.
Eliminate ignition sources.
Prevent from entering sewers, basements and workpits, or any place where its accumulation can be dangerous.

Environmental precautions:
Try to stop release.

Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Keep area evacuated and free from ignition sources until any spilled liquid has evaporated (Ground free from frost). Liquid spillages can cause
embrittlement of structural materials.
Ventilate area.

Handling and storage

Safe use of the product:
Only experienced and properly instructed persons should handle gases under pressure.
The substance must be handled in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety procedures.
Use only properly specified equipment which is suitable for this product, its supply pressure and temperature. Contact your gas supplier if in doubt.
Clean all surfaces in direct contact with nitrous oxide as for oxygen service.
Use no oil or grease.
Keep equipment free from oil and grease.
Use only oxygen approved lubricants and oxygen approved sealings.
Do not smoke while handling product.
Ensure the complete gas system was (or is regularily) checked for leaks before use.
Avoid suck back of water, acid and alkalis.
Consider pressure relief device(s) in gas installations.
Nitrous oxide transfer pumps shall be provided with an interlock to prevent dry running.
Use self-limiting heating devices, e.g. direct contact electric immersion heaters are not allowed.
“Refer to the EIGA Document 176 “Safe practices for storage and handling of Nitrous oxide" for more guidance on safe use, downloadable at http://www.eiga.org. ”, if necessary, consult your supplier.

Safe handling of gas receptacle:
Refer to supplier's container handling instructions.
Open valve slowly to avoid pressure shock.
Do not allow backfeed into the container.
Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not drag, roll, slide or drop.
When moving cylinders, even for short distances, use a cart (trolley, hand truck, etc.) designed to transport cylinders.
Leave valve protection caps in place until the container has been secured against either a wall or bench or placed in a container stand and is ready for use.
If user experiences any difficulty operating cylinder valve discontinue use and contact supplier.
Never attempt to repair or modify container valves or safety relief devices.
Damaged valves should be reported immediately to the supplier.
Keep container valve outlets clean and free from contaminants particularly oil and water.
Replace valve outlet caps or plugs and container caps where supplied as soon as container is disconnected from equipment.
Close container valve after each use and when empty, even if still connected to equipment.
Never attempt to transfer gases from one cylinder/container to another.
Never use direct flame or electrical heating devices to raise the pressure of a container.
Do not remove or deface labels provided by the supplier for the identification of the cylinder contents.

Conditions for safe storage, including incompatibilities:
Keep container below 50°C in a well ventilated place.
Segregate from flammable gases and other flammable materials in store. Containers should be stored in the vertical position and properly secured to prevent toppling. Stored containers should be periodically checked for general condition and leakage. Container valve guards or caps should be in
place. Store containers in location free from fire risk and away from sources of heat and ignition.
Observe all regulations and local requirements regarding storage of containers.
Containers should not be stored in conditions likely to encourage corrosion. Keep away from combustible materials.

Transport information

Land transport (UN RTDG/ADR/RID)

UN number:
2201
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
NITROUS OXIDE, REFRIGERATED LIQUID
Language:
English
Labels:
2.2: Non flammable, non toxic gas
5.1: Oxidising substances
SpecialProvisionsopen allclose all
Shippingopen allclose all
Remarksopen allclose all

Marine transport (UN RTDG/IMDG)

UN number:
2201
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
NITROUS OXIDE, REFRIGERATED LIQUID
Labels:
2.2: Non flammable, non toxic gas
5.1: Oxidising substances
Remarksopen allclose all

Air transport (UN RTDG/ICAO/IATA)

UN number:
2201
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
NITROUS OXIDE, REFRIGERATED LIQUID
Labels:
2.2: Non flammable, non toxic gas
5.1: Oxidising substances
Special provisions / remarks
Remarks:
Passenger and Cargo Aircraft : DO NOT LOAD IN PASSENGER AIRCRAFT.
Cargo Aircraft only : FORBIDDEN.

Additional transport information

Additional information
Special provisions / remarks / other:
Avoid transport on vehicles where the load space is not separated from the driver's compartment.
Ensure vehicle driver is aware of the potential hazards of the load and knows what to do in the event of an accident or an emergency.
Before transporting product containers:
- Ensure that containers are firmly secured.
- Ensure cylinder valve is closed and not leaking.
- Ensure valve outlet cap nut or plug (where provided) is correctly fitted.
- Ensure valve protection device (where provided) is correctly fitted.
- Ensure there is adequate ventilation.

Exposure controls / personal protection

Occupational Exposure Limits - Dinitrogen oxide :
Value 15min. (CZ) [mg/m3] : 360
Value 8h (CZ) [mg/m3] : 180
LTEL - UK [mg/m³] : 183
LTEL - UK [ppm] : 100
AGW (8h) - Germany [mg/m³] TRGS 900 : 180
AGW (8h) - Germany [ppm] TRGS 900 : 100
Exceeding factor AGW - Germany TRGS 900 : 2
MAK (AU) Tagesmittelwert (ml/m³) : 100
MAK (AU) Tagesmittelwert (mg/m³) : 180
MAK (AU) Kurzzeitwerte (ml/m³) : 400
MAK (AU) Kurzzeitwerte (mg/m³) : 720
VLA-ED - Spain [ppm] : 50
VLA-ED - Spain [mg/m3] : 92
NGV - [ppm] : 100
NGV - [mg/m³] : 180
KTV - [ppm] : 500
KTV - [mg/m³] : 900
HTP-värden (FI) - 8 H - [ppm] : 100
HTP-värden (FI) - 8 H - [mg/m³] : 180
Grenseverdi (NO) 8 timers [ppm] : 50
Grenseverdi (NO) 8 timers [mg/m³] : 90
VLE-CH [mg/m3] : 364
VLE-CH [ppm] : 200
VME-CH [mg/m3] : 182
8-Hour TWA (PL) (NDS) (mg/m³) : 90
TLV-TWA (Belgium) (ppm) : 50
TWA BE 8h [mg/m3] : 91
TWA LT 8h [ppm] : 100
TWA LT 8h [mg/m3] : 180
STEL LT 15min [ppm] : 500
STEL LT 15min [mg/m3] : 900
TWA EE 8h [ppm] : 100
TWA EE 8h [mg/m3] : 180
STEL EE 15min [ppm] : 500
STEL EE 15min [mg/m3] : 900
TLV© -TWA [ppm] : 50

Appropriate engineering controls:
Product to be handled in a closed system.
Systems under pressure shoud be regularily checked for leakages.
Gas detectors should be used when oxidising gases may be released.
Ensure exposure is below occupational exposure limits (where available).
Provide adequate general and local exhaust ventilation.
Consider work permit system e.g. for maintenance activities.

Individual protection:
A risk assessment should be conducted and documented in each work area to assess the equipment risks related to the use of the product and to
select the PPE that matches the relevant risk.
The following recommendations should be considered:
PPE compliant to the recommended EN/ISO standards should be selected.
Eye/face protecton - Wear safety glasses with side shields. Wear safety glasses with side shields or goggles when transfilling or breaking transfer
connections. Standard EN 166 - Personal eye-protection.
Skin protection - Wear working gloves when handling gas containers. Standard EN 388 - Protective gloves against mechanical risk.
Wear safety shoes while handling containers. Standard EN ISO 20345 - Personal protective equipment - Safety footwear.
Consider the use of flame resistant safety clothing. Standard EN ISO 14116 - Limited flame spread materials.
Respiratory protection - Keep self contained breathing apparatus readily available for emergency use. Standard EN 137 - Self-contained open-circuit compressed air breathing apparatus with full face mask. Self contained breathing apparatus is recommended, where unknown exposure may be
expected, e.g. during maintenance activities on installation systems.

Thermal hazards:
Standard EN 511 - Cold insulating gloves. Wear cold insulating gloves when transfilling or breaking transfer connections.

Stability and reactivity

Reactivity:
No reactivity hazard other than the effects described in sub-sections below.

Chemical stability:
Stable under normal conditions. At temperatures over 575°C and at atmospheric pressure, nitrous oxide decomposes into nitrogen and
oxygen. Nitrous oxide dissociation is irreversible and exothermic, leading to a considerable rise in pressure. In the presence of catalysts
(e.g. halogen products, mercury, nickel, platinum) the rate of decomposition increases and decomposition can occur at even lower temperatures.
Pressurized nitrous oxide can also decompose at temperatures equal or greater than 300°C.

Possibility of hazardous reactions:
Violently oxidises organic material.

Conditions to avoid:
Heat.
Temperatures above 150°C (300°F) shall be avoided by all practical means, to reduce the likelihood of an explosive decomposition of the nitrous
oxide.

Incompatible materials:
May react violently with combustible materials.
May react violently with reducing agents.
Keep equipment free from oil and grease.
For additional information on compatibility refer to ISO 11114.

Hazardous decomposition products:
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous decomposition products should not be produced.

Further information on stability:
Under normal operating conditions, nitrous oxide is a stable compound in both the liquid and gaseous states. Nitrous oxide is classified as a
non-flammable gas, with oxidizer as a secondary classification. Accidents and experiments have shown that nitrous oxide as a result of its positive
formation energy can decompose exothermally. This decomposition reaction can be self-sustaining and violent. The theoretical pressure ratio at
decomposition – final pressure / initial pressure – can reach 10 to 1. If improperly handled, nitrous oxide can decompose irreversibly, and
potentially explosively, into nitrogen and oxygen:
2N2O. 2N2 + O2 + Heat
While nitrogen and oxygen are the primary products from nitrous oxide decomposition, the higher nitrogen oxides (NO/NO2) are also produced.
Decomposition of nitrous oxide is a homogeneous, first order reaction. Nitrous oxide releases 1860.8 kJ per kg (800 BTU per pound) upon
decomposition. Nitrous oxide decomposition progresses as a purely thermal process, whereas a propane-air flame front precedes by a combination of thermal and chain carrier processes. The propagation speed of nitrous oxide decomposition reaction is 30 times slower than the flame
propagation speed for propane-air and the reaction is easily quenched. It is important for those handling nitrous oxide to understand and avoid
sources of decomposition and to understand at what conditions the decomposition front will or will not propagate.
Liquid nitrous oxide is relatively insensitive to high energy sparks or external shocks. Decomposition of the liquid could not be initiated by an
exploding wire in the laboratory. Limited decomposition has been induced in the liquid by blasting caps. Laboratory results indicate that nitrous
oxide can be safely handled in the liquid state but decomposition hazards exist in the gaseous state at elevated pressure and/or temperature. The
reaction can propagate through vapour with liquid present.

Disposal considerations

Waste treatment methods:
May be vented to atmosphere in a well ventilated place.
Discharge to atmosphere in large quantities should be avoided.
Do not discharge into any place where its accumulation could be dangerous.
Refer to the EIGA code of practice Doc.30 “Disposal of Gases"", downloadable at http:// www.eiga.org for more guidance on suitable disposal
methods.
Ensure that the emission levels from local regulations or operating permits are not exceeded.

List of hazardous wastes : 16 05 04: Gases in pressure containers (including halons) containing dangerous substances.