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Key value for chemical safety assessment

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Fumarate is metabolised as part of the Krebbs Cycle to Malate by the addition of water in the presence of the enzyme fumarase. This is an essential part of metabolism.


Since it is very likely that fumaric acid will metabolise through malic acid in biological systems, toxicological properties of fumaric acid will reflect the properties of malic acid. 

Published work by the WHO has demonstrated that the synthetic DL Malic acid will metabolise in the same way as the natural L isomer.