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Read across to fumaric acid is considered valid and malic acid is concluded to have moderate to low toxicity to aquatic organisms and classification is not required in view of biodegradabily.

The rational for read across is that fumaric acid will metabolise in biological systems to malic acid. Fumaric acid is also slightly more fat soluble and is considered more likely to absorb to membranes and increase exposure to aquatic organisms.

It is not considered valid to perform further animal tests on malic acid.

No toxicity was seen with fish at up to 100 mg/l, but Daphnia and algal testing with fumaric acid suggests that pH will cause effect. By buffering the pH. By ensuring water quality criteria met the correst parameters for the organisms, the acute effects were reduced and NOEC is > 100 mg/l.

The 3 hour EC50 for sludge respiration inhibition was >300 mg fumaric acid/L (the highest tested concentration)