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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
0.38 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish:
43.8 mg/L

Additional information

Effect of Nickel in solution - Fresh water

From the database of acute toxicity to freshwater fish, there are 31 high quality studies.  This represents 21 different freshwater fish species, dominated by Pimephales promelas, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Cyprinus carpio.  The 96h LC50s values range from 0.23 mg Ni/L (Pimphales promelas; Hoang et al., 2004) to 320 mg Ni/L (Brachydanio rerio; NiPERA, 1993).  

Effect of Fluoride in solution - Fresh water

Fluoride effect on fresh water fish was measured as worst case at LC50 = 51 mg/L fluoride ion, 96 h exposure. This value is much above the risk caused by dissolved Ni2+. The contribution from fluoride ion is totally negligible

CONCLUSIONS: LC50 0.23 mg/L Ni = LC50 0.38 mg/L NiF2 anhydrous

LC50 0.23 mg/L Ni = LC50 0.66 mg/L NiF2 tetrahydrated

Effect of Nickel in solution . Marine water

From the database of acute toxicity to marine fish, there are 4 high quality studies.  This represents 3 different marine fish species.  The 96h LC50s values range from 26.6 mg Ni/L (Atherinops affinis; Hunt et al., 2002) to 350 mg Ni/L (Fundulus heteroclitus; Eisler and Hennekey, 1977).  

Effect of Fluoride in solution . Marine water

Fluoride effect on marine water fish was measured as worst case at LC50 > 500mg/L, 96 h exposure. This value is much above the risk caused by dissolved Ni2+. The contribution from fluoride ion is totally negligible

CONCLUSIONS: LC50 26.6 mg/L Ni = LC50 43.8 mg/L NiF2 anhydrous

LC50 26.6 mg/L Ni = LC50 76.42 mg/L NiF2 tetrahydrated

FOR AN EXTENSIVE DISCUSSION, REFER TO THE NICKEL SULFATE DOSSIER WHICH IS BASED ON THE CONCLUSIONS EXPLAINED IN THE 2008/2009 EUROPEAN UNION EXISITING SUBSTANCE RISK ASSESSMENT OF NICKEL (EU RAR) (EEC 793/93)