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Description of key information

Acute toxicity:
Oral: LD50: 375 mg/kg bw
Dermal: 20000 mg/kg bw
Inhalation: no data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Endpoint conclusion
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
375 mg/kg bw

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
20 000 mg/kg bw

Additional information

The acute toxicity of oxalates can be assimilated to the oxalic acid toxicity.

The results of the available acute toxicity studies are summarized in the table below.

Study reference

LD50 (mg/kg bw)

Remarks

Reliability

NON_KEY_1968_Farbwerke Hoechst AG_111/68

1080

Duration of study: 7 days

2

KEY_1977_lit_Vernot

475 (male)

No duration specified

2

375 (female)

NON KEY_1983_lit_Kluwe

Not identified

No mortality studied, main focus on urogenital system

2

The study by Vernont et al. (1977) was assigned as key study, as for this study the most detailed information on both material and methods and results was available, and the most critical effect was reported. In the study by Kluwe et al (1983), the effects of a single, maximum-tolerated, non-lethal dose were studied. This study therefore can be used as a supplementary study focusing on the specific effects of oxalic acid on the urogenital system.

In assessing the hazard of oxalic acid, it should be kept in mind that oxalic acid is a natural substance which is present in various food substances, and in this way is consumed by the general population daily. From Gold et al (2001), the following table was derived, in which the average daily consumption of oxalic acid containing food is summarized. A total average daily consumption of 68.4 mg oxalic acid can be calculated from this table.

Food substance (average daily consumption)

Average daily oxalic acid consumption

Coffee (500 mL)

25.2 mg

Carrot (boiled, 12.1 g)

22.7 mg

Tea (60.2 mL)

6.67 mg

Chocolate (cocoa solids, 3.34 g)

3.91 mg

Tomato (88.7 g)

3.24 mg

Celery (7.95 g)

1.39 mg

Potato (54.9 g)

1.26 mg

Corn (33.8 g)

1.12 mg

Apple (32.0 g)

704 µg

(10.5 g)

651 µg

Lettuce (14.9 g)

447 µg

Broccoli (6.71 g)

268 µg

Strawberry (4.38 g)

261 µg

Cabbage (boiled, 12.9 g)

155 µg

Grapes (11 g)

138 µg

Cucumber (raw flesh, 11.8 g)

118 µg

Peach (canned, 9.58 g)

115 µg

Onions (green, cooked, 137 mg)

31.5 µg

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based upon the standard classification criteria (Commission Directive 2001/59/EC of August 2001), oxalic acid is considered to be "harmful".

On the basis of the results, interpreted according to Official Journal of the European Union 1272/2008

(CLP) dated December 16th, 2008, the substance “OXALIC ACID” is Harmful if swallowed and must be included in Acute oral toxicity CATEGORY 4.

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