Registration Dossier

Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to other aquatic vertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
PROTECTIVE ACTION OF 24 AMINO ACIDS ON THE TOXICITY OF COPPER TO A FRESHWATER TUBIFICIDWORM TUBIFEX TUBIFEX MULLER
Author:
Khangarot, B.S.; Rathore, R.S.
Year:
2004
Bibliographic source:
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 157: 53–63

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: other guideline: APHA, AWWA, WPCF.: 1989, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 17th edn. American Public Health Association Inc., Washington, DC.
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
DL-alanine
EC Number:
206-126-4
EC Name:
DL-alanine
Cas Number:
302-72-7
IUPAC Name:
alanine

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
no

Test solutions

Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
water

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: Tubifex tubifex Muller (a tubificid worm)
Details on test organisms:
Tubificid worms (Tubifex tubifex) were initially collected from natural streams and stock culture was made in the laboratory.

Study design

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h

Test conditions

Hardness:
Total hardness 240 mg/L as CaCO3; range 230 - 265 mg/L
Test temperature:
20 +/- 1 °C
pH:
7.5; range 7.4 - 7.8
Dissolved oxygen:
5.5 mg/L; range 5.2 - 5.8 mg/L
Salinity:
No data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations. Values see "Results and Discussion"
Details on test conditions:
Tests were conducted in BOD chamber at 20 ± 1 ◦C at the ITRC Gheru Campus. Acute toxicity bioassays with T. tubifex were conducted in well water at 20 ±1 ◦C according to detail method described for the static test in Standard Methods (APHA et al., 1989). At the beginning of the experiment, 10 tubificid worms were placed in 100 mL petri dishes. A series of test concentrations (6 to 8) of copper toxicant and control with or without amino acids were used in the present study. All tests were run in duplicate sets.
Stock solution of Cu (as CuSO4 · 5H2O) in distilled water was prepared. Aliquots of this stock solution were added to the test containers to prepare the desired Cu concentrations. Tubificid worms were not fed during the Cu exposure period. Initial measurements of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, and total hardness parameters were determined as procedures described by Standard Methods (APHA et al., 1989). A fixed quantity of amino acids at the concentration of 2 mM, 4 mM, 10 mM, and 20mM was added to Cu concentration.

APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1989): Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 17th edn. American Public Health Association Inc., Washington, DC.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Control experiments with or without copper and at highest concentrations (i.e., 20mM) of each tested amino acid were run for 96h of exposure. For each amino acid control test without copper solution, 100% survival was observed.

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC50 for Cu without addition of DL-alanine
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 2.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 2 mmol/L
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 5.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 4 mmol/L
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 6.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 10 mmol/L
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 7.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 20 mmol/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.32 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu without addition of DL-alanine
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.54 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 2 mmol/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 4 mmol/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 2.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 10 mmol/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 4.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 20 mmol/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC50 for Cu without addition of DL-alanine
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.32 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 2 mmol/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.46 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 4 mmol/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 1.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 10 mmol/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 1.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 20 mmol/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.08 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC50 for Cu without addition of DL-alanine
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.24 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 2 mmol/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.25 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 4 mmol/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.57 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 10 mmol/L
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 0.62 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: Cu
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC 50 for Cu in presence of DL-alanine at a concentration of 20 mmol/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Confidence limits (CL) were given

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Copper alone is highly toxic to tubificid worms. The acute toxicity of Cu decreases in the presence of DL-alanine. The findings demonstrate that
even 20 mM of DL-alanine alone are not harmful to tubified worms.
Read across from DL-alanine to L-alanine was applied as just a study with racemic alanine was available for this endpoint.