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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2012-06-18 to 2012-07-12
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Limit test with the saturated solution with a nominal loading of 1 mg test item/L
- Sampling method: No analytical determinations were carried out, because no chromatography compatible solvent is suitable for dissolving the test item in a defined and reproducible concentration.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: The stock solution (1 mg/L test item was weighed out) were prepared with dilution water two days prior to application.
The stock solution was stirred with approximately 1100 rpm for 48 hours at room temperature. Undissolved particles were removed by membrane filtration (membrane filter: 0.45 µm, RC, MACHEREY-NAGEL). Due to the test item properties centrifugation was not sufficient.
- Eluate: Dilution water
- Differential loading: None, limit test
- Controls: 10 replicates of dilution water without test item
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna STRAUS
- Strain/clone: Clone 5
- Justification for species other than prescribed by test guideline: Daphnia magna STRAUS is recommended in the guideline
- Source: Own breeding (Origin: Institut fuer Wasser- Boden- und Lufthygiene)
- Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): > 14 days
- Feeding during test
- Food type: Mix of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Desmodesmus subspicatus
- Amount: 0.2 mg C/daphnia per day
- Frequency: daily


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 2 h in dilution water
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Same as test
- Type and amount of food: During acclimation the daphnids were not fed
- Feeding frequency: None
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Healthy

METHOD FOR PREPARATION AND COLLECTION OF EARLY INSTARS OR OTHER LIFE STAGES: The parent animals were removed from the culture medium and the juveniles collected over a sieve and flushed into fresh medium
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Post exposure observation period:
Not observed
Hardness:
Total Hardness as CaCO3 [mg/L]
Nominal
Test Item
Concentration
[mg/L] I F I F I F
Day 0 Day 2 Day 9 Day 12 Day 14 Day 16
2012-06-20 2012-06-22 2012-06-29 2012-07-02 2012-07-04 2012-07-06
1.00
(Saturated
solution) 173 155 178 176 171 173
Control 166 160 169 164 173 173

Test temperature:
Temperature [°C]
Nominal
Test Item
Concentration
[mg/L] I F I F I F
Day 0 Day 2 Day 9 Day 12 Day 14 Day 16
2012-06-20 2012-06-22 2012-06-29 2012-07-02 2012-07-04 2012-07-06
1.00
(Saturated
solution) 22.0 21.5 21.3 21.0 21.9 21.3
Control 22.0 21.3 20.2 21.2 22.0 21.6

pH:
Nominal
Test Item
Concentration
[mg/L] I F I F I F
Day 0 Day 2 Day 9 Day 12 Day 14 Day 16
2012-06-20 2012-06-22 2012-06-29 2012-07-02 2012-07-04 2012-07-06
1.00
(Saturated
solution) 7.73 7.75 7.92 7.73 8.25 7.53
Control 8.98 7.74 7.77 7.82 7.76 7.55

Dissolved oxygen:
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration [mg O2/L]
Nominal
Test Item
Concentration
[mg/L] I F I F I F
Day 0 Day 2 Day 9 Day 12 Day 14 Day 16
2012-06-20 2012-06-22 2012-06-29 2012-07-02 2012-07-04 2012-07-06
1.00
(Saturated
solution) 8.02 7.72 5.77 8.50 5.21 7.14
Control 8.76 7.43 8.70 9.17 8.00 8.32

Salinity:
Not measured, freshwater
Nominal and measured concentrations:
- Concentrations: Limit test with the saturated solution prepared at a nominal loading of 1 mg test item/L
- Sampling method: No analytical determinations were carried out, because no chromatography compatible solvent is suitable for dissolving the test item in a defined and reproducible concentration.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed with parafilm
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 100 mL glass beaker, filled with 50 mL test solution
- Aeration: No
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency): 3 x per week
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control and pH-control (replicates): 10


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Elendt M4, according to ELENDT (1990), modified to a total hardness of > 140 mg CaCO3/L.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16 h light : 8 h dark per day
- Light intensity: Max. 20 µE*m-2*s-1


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Adult mortality: daily
- Number of juveniles: daily
- Stillborn juveniles and aborted eggs: daily
- Appearance of first brood
- Intrinsic rate of natural increase: test end
- Growth (total length and dry weight): test end


RANGE-FINDING STUDY
Immobilization Rates in the Preliminary Test
(n = 20, divided into 2 replicates with 10 daphnids each)
Nominal
Concentration
of the Test Item[mg/L] IMMOBILIZATION [%]
24 h 48 h
Replicates Replicates
1 2 MV 1 2 MV
(Saturated
solution)
1.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
Control 0 0 0 0 0 0
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: mortality and reproduction
Details on results:
- Mortality of parent animals:
No adult mortality or immobilization of parental daphnids was observed in the control and the saturated solution with 1.00 mg test item/L.
- No. of offspring produced per day per female:
In the control and the saturated test item test solution (limit concentration), four broods were released during the test period by all daphnids. The first brood was released on days 8 and 9 by all parent daphnids in the control and test group.
The mean number of living offspring produced per parent daphnid surviving the test was 104 in the control and 107 in the saturated test item solution with 1.00 mg test item/L after 21 days. The reproductive output of daphnids in the saturated test item solution (limit concentration) was comparable to the output of daphnids in the control (t-test, p = 0.05).
- Body length and weight of parent animals:
please refer to the respective table
- Type and number of morphological / behavioural abnormalities:
please refer to the respective table
- Time to first brood release or time to hatch:
The first brood was released from all parent daphnids in all treatments until day 9



Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes
- Relevant effect levels: EC50 (24 h) = 1.79 (CI 1.56 - 2.02) mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The NOEC and LOEC for reproduction as measured by the intrinsic rate of natural increase and total living neonates per surviving female as well as adult survival was derived directly from the test data.
Significant deviations were determined in comparison to the control using statistical standard procedures as Normality Test, Equal Variance Test and t-test. Prior to running an analysis of variance test, a normality test and an equal variance test were performed. P-values for the equal variance tests were 0.05. The a-value (acceptable probability of incorrectly concluding that there is a difference) was a=0.05. For the determination of significant deviations of the reproduction rates and the intrinsic rates of natural increase t-test (p = 0.05) was used. The coefficients of variation of living offspring produced per parent were calculated for the control and the saturated test item solution.

Number of Juveniles in the Control and Test Group after 21 d

Nominal

Test Item

Concentration

[mg/L]

No. of

Parents

producing

Juveniles

Mean No. of Juveniles

per Parent

producing Juveniles

Compared

versus

Control

 

Number of Juveniles in Replicate No.

Total

 

No.

 

CV

Inc.

Stat.

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

å

N

MV ± SD

[%]

[%]

 

1.00

(Saturated solution)

109

100

115

112

127

110

92

100

100

105

1070

10

107 ± 10

9

- 2.88

no

 

Control

114

108

110

98

93

116

110

92

93

102

1036

10

104 ±   9

9

Relative Number of Dead (Stillborn + Aborted Eggs) to Total Number of Juveniles

Nominal
Test Item Concentration
[mg/L]

Number of Juveniles

Percentage of
Dead Juveniles*
[%]

Dead

Alive

Total

1.00

(Saturated solution)

9

1070

1079

1

Control

0

1036

1036

   0

Dead = Aborted eggs + stillborn juveniles

Total = Dead + alive juveniles

* = Related to the total number of juveniles

First Appearance of Living Juveniles in the Individual Groups

Nominal

Test Item

Concentration

[mg/L]

Day of First Appearance of Living Juveniles

First

Appearance

Mean Day

in Replicate No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1.00

(Saturated solution)

8

8

8

8

8

8

9

8

8

8

8.1

Control

8

8

8

9

9

9

8

8

8

8

8.3

Mortality [%] of the Adult Daphnids after 7, 14 and 21 d of Exposure

(n = 10)

Nominal

Test Item Concentration
[mg/L]

Mortality [%]

7 days

14 days

21 days

1.00

(Saturated solution)

0

0

0

Control

0

0

0

Total Length and Dry Weight of the Parental Daphnids

Nominal

Test Item Concentration
[mg/L]

Total Length of the Parental Daphnids [mm]

MV

N

Dry Weight [mg]

Replicate No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

[mm]

S

MV

1.00

(Saturated solution)

5.25

5.00

5.25

5.50

5.25

5.25

5.50

5.75

5.25

5.25

5.33

10

     9.10

0.91

Control

5.75

5.50

5.25

5.50

5.25

5.00

5.75

5.75

5.50

5.25

5.45

10

10.6

1.06

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
At the saturated test item solution prepared at 1.00 mg test item/L no biologically or statistically significant effects were determined. The No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) were as follows:
NOEC : 1.00 mg/L (saturated solution)
LOEC : > 1.00 mg/L (saturated solution)
All provided effect values are based on the nominal concentration of the test item.

Executive summary:

The Daphnia magna Reproduction Test (Semi-Static, 21 d) was performed according to OECD 211 (2008) (compliant to GLP, reliability category 1). Due to the test item being highly insoluble in water the test was conducted as a limit test with the saturated solution* prepared at 1.00 mg/L test item.
The selected test organism was Daphnia magna STRAUS (Clone 5). Ten daphnids individually held were used for the saturated test item solution* and the control. At test start the daphnids were 2 to 24 hours old. The test method was semi-static with a renewal of the test solutions every 2- 3 days. The aim of the Daphnia Reproduction Test over 21 days was to assess effects on the reproduction capacity and other test item-related effects, including occurrence of aborted eggs and stillborn juveniles, time of production of first brood, adult mortality, intrinsic rate of natural increase, dry body weight and length of the parent daphnids.
A specific analytic of the test item was not possible, because the test item is insoluble in water and organic solvents
which are compatible with the analytical system. The results given are based on the nominal concentration of 1.00 mg/L of the test item.

·   The average values of juveniles per parental daphnid were 104 for the control and 107 for the saturated test item solution* prepared at 1.00 mg test item/L after 21 days. The reproductive output of daphnids in the saturated test item solution* (limit concentration) was comparable to the output of daphnids in the control (t-test, p = 0.05).

·   The coefficient of variation of the number of living offspring produced per parent was 9 % for the control and the saturated test item solution* .

·   The intrinsic rates of natural increase (IR) of the surviving parent daphnids accounting for generation time and number of offspring were calculated as a measure for population growth and maintenance. The IR of the saturated solution* was comparable to the control group (t-test, p = 0.05).

·   No significant adult mortality (≤ 20 %) or immobilization of parental daphnids was observed in the control and the saturated solution*.

·   Related to the total number of produced juveniles (dead + alive) the percentage of dead juveniles and aborted eggs was 1 % for the control and the saturated solution, which is seen to be not biologically significant.

·   Four broods were observed during the test period for all parental daphnids. The first brood was released from all parent daphnids in all treatments until day 9.

·   The mean dry body weight and total body lengths of all parental daphnids of the test and the control group were determined at the end of the study. The mean dry body weight of the parental daphnids was 1.06 mg per daphnid for the control and 0.91 mg per daphnid for the saturated test item solution. The mean body length of the parental daphnids was 5.45 mm per daphnid for the control and 5.33 mm for the the saturated test item solution.

·   No males and ephippia (winter eggs) were observed in the respective control or test groups.

No biologically or statistically significant effect could be determined in the saturated test item solution prepared at 1.00 mg/L test item when compared to the control.

Summary of all Test Item Related Effects

(Based on the nominal concentration of the test item of 1.00 mg/L)

Effects

Control

Nominal Concentration

1.00 mg/L

Significance

Mean Number of Juveniles
per Producing Parent
(Reproduction Rate
± SD)

104 ± 9

107 ± 10

  no1)

Coefficient of Variation of the Mean Number of Juveniles per Producing Parent

    9

    9

no

Intrinsic Rate of
Natural Increase (Mean
± SD)

    0.49 ± 0.03

    0.50 ± 0.02

  no1)

Appearance of First Brood (Mean Day ± SD)

    8.3 ± 0.5

    8.1 ± 0.3

Number of Broods

    4

    4

Stillborn Juveniles and Aborted Eggs

    0

    9

no

Adult Mortality after 21 Days [%]

    0

    0

no

Parent Daphnids:
Mean Dry Weight [mg]

    1.06

    0.91

Parent Daphnids:
Mean Body Length [mm]
± SD

    5.45 ± 0.26

    5.33 ± 0.21

NOEC

1.00 mg/L

·   The water quality parameters (pH-value, dissolved oxygen, water hardness and temperature) were determined to be within the acceptable limits.

·   To assure the validity of the test system and the test conditions at the test facility, an acute immobilization test according to DIN 38412 L 11 is being carried out with potassium dichromate as reference item once per month. This reference test is required by the test guideline OECD 211 (2008).
The EC50 of the reference item of
1.79 mg/L (95 % confidence limits: 1.56 - 2.02 mg/L)after 24 h is within the prescribed concentration range of 1.0 - 2.5 mg/L of quality criteria according to AQS P 9/2 (05/1996) for daphnids clone 5 cultured in Elendt M4 medium. The EC50-value of the reference item is also within the recommended range of 0.6 - 2.1 mg/L according to OECD-Guideline 202.

*) Saturated solution: The maximum dissolved concentration of the test item that can be achieved under the test conditions in the test medium, acc. to OECD Series, No. 23 (2000)6.

Description of key information

One long-term chronic toxicity studies of reliability 1 for Pigment Orange 34 on Daphnia magna is available.
Under the conditions of this test the NOEC and the EC10 of the submission substance after 21 days was 1 mg/L and > 1 mg/L, respectively (based an nominal concentration) and is above the solubility limit of the test substance in the test water (3.5 μg/L).


For all three pigments of the Diazopyrazolone group consistently no aquatic toxicity has been found up to nominal concentrations well above the solubility limit. Therefore it is justified to use the data for all members of the group.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect concentration:
1 mg/L
Fresh water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect concentration:
> 1 mg/L

Additional information

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