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Environmental fate & pathways

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Biodegradation of retinyl palmitate was determined according to EU Directive 79/831/EEC Annex V part C and OECD Guideline 301 F using domestic, activated sludge as inoculum. The result showed a degradation rate of 40 – 60% after 28 days of exposure. Therefore, the test substance is partly or moderately biodegradable. Comparable degradation rates are expected for biodegradation in surface water, sediment and soil. However, with high probability retinyl palmitate will be used as a food source for bacteria. In addition, the degradation products retinol and palmitic acid are readily biodegradable; furthermore, both substances are natural nutrients. Therefore, simulation studies on biodegradation of retinyl palmitate in this compartments are not provided.