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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1995
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The study was given a reliability rating of 1 because it followed a standard test guideline, which describes a procedure to evaluate this endpoint, and the results were reviewed for reliability and assessed as valid. The study was also conducted under GLP.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
EC L383 C2
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
An equilibration trial was performed to determine the time required for the components of the test substance to achieve maximum aqueous solubility. Five glass aspirators were each filled with 22L of main dechlorinated water, leaving a small headspace of air. The test substance was added to four of the vessels at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L, and the contents of the fifth aspirator served as the control. All five vessels were then sealed, and stirred as vigorously as possible without creating a dispersion in the sealed vessels, which contained a small headspace of air to permit stirring. After nominal stirring periods of 24, 48, 72, 96and 198 hours, the WAF solutions were allowed to settle for 1-3 hours, after which a sample of the aqueous layer was extracted and analyzed by GC/FID. The results of the equilibration study showed that equilibrium between the test substance components and the aqueous phase at a loading of 1 g/L was reached in about 72-96 hours.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Test solutions were prepared as water accommodated fractions (WAF). Control and dilution water were reconstituted fresh (hard) water. The nominal loading rates used to prepare the WAFS were based upon range-finding results. This included adding test substance to 15-16 liter glass aspirator bottles, which contained laboratory dilution water, that was filtered (15 um) through activated charcoal. The WAF was stirred for 93-96 hours as vigorously as possible without creating a dispersion in the sealed vessels, which contained a small headspace of air to permit stirring. After mixing, the WAFs were allowed to settle for one hour, after which the aqueous phase was removed for testing. Test vessels were sealed 150 ml erlenmeyer flasks with 10 daphnids per flask. Two replicates per treatment and control were used.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
D. magna, less than 24 h old, were taken from a laboratory culture, which is derived from a strain obtained via Zeneca Brixham Laboratory from I.R. Ch.A. France. Young were collected from cultures aged between 14 and 28 days
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
no data
Test temperature:
Test temperature was 18.1-19 Deg C.
pH:
The pH ranged from 8.3 to 8.6 during the study.
Dissolved oxygen:
Dissolved oxygen was 9.2-9.3mg/L
Salinity:
freshwater
Nominal and measured concentrations:
WAF concentration (mg/L) of dissolved hydrocarbon (derived from test substance) as determined by GC/FID. Specific hydrocarbon isomers were not identified. Analytical results are based on mass attributable to the test material. Control concentration was <0.02 mg/L at all sampling intervals identified above.

Nominal Loading Measured concentration (mg/L)
(mg/L) time 0 48 hr Mean
100 0.31 0.19 0.24
220 0.31 0.28 0.29
460 0.30 0.31 0.30
1000 0.33 0.24 0.28
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL0
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
No immobilization was observed in the control and any of the WAF treatments.

48-hr EL0 = 1000 mg/L based upon nominal loading rate

This value is representative of acute aquatic invertebrate toxicity for those C14-C20 (high aromatics) aliphatic category members having an initial minimum boiling point range of 263°C. Since the hydrocarbon constituents for these category members with boiling point values greater than 263 deg C do not show adequate water solubility in equilibrated aqueous solutions, acute aquatic toxicity effects are not expected at the 1000mg/L maximum loading concentration investigated in this study.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by immobility to the water flea (Daphnia magna) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute toxicity to Daphnia magna at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by immobility to the water flea (Daphnia magna) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute toxicity to Daphnia magna at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The study was given a reliability rating of 2 because although it followed a standard test guideline, testing above water solubility limits may evidence effects due to physical property of chemical (i.e. coating of gills, smothering, entrapment in oil droplets).
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: EPA-660/3-75-009. Methods for acute toxicity testing with fish, macro-invertebrates and amphibians.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
D. magna, less than 24 hr old, were taken from a culture derived from a strain obtained (via ICI Brixham Laboratory) from I.R. Ch.A., France. Young for use in tests are collected from cultures aged 15-35 days.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
Total hardness was 170 mg/L as Ca CO3
Test temperature:
Test the temperature was 20+/-2 degrees C
pH:
pH was 7.9-8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
Dissolved oxygen was 8.8-9.2 mg/L.
Salinity:
freshwater
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Sufficient amounts of the test substances were added directly to triplicate sets of 140 ml flasks to achieve logarithmic concentrations of 100 to 1000 mg/L when diluted with reconstituted water.
Details on test conditions:
A 48 hour static toxicity test was conducted with no renewal. Three flasks received only water and no test substance and served as controls. Ten organisms less than 24 hr old were allocated to each flask. After 24 and 48 hrs the number of immobilized organisms were observed and removed.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL0
Effect conc.:
>= 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
48-hr EL50 > 1000 mg/L based upon nominal loading rate

This value is representative of acute aquatic invertebrate toxicity for those C14-C20 (high aromatics) aliphatic category members having an initial minimum boiling point range of 263C. Since the hydrocarbon constituents for these category members with boiling point values greater
than 263 deg C do not show adequate water solubility in equilibrated aqueous solutions, acute aquatic toxicity effects are not expected at the 1000mg/L maximum loading concentration investigated in this study. At concentrations of around 0.3 mg/L and above the test material was visible as an oily layer on the surface of the test media. It was therefore considered not to be wholly soluble at these concentrations. A small number of organisms were immobilized at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/L but these animals were observed to be trapped in undissolved test substance at the surface of the test solution. No organisms were immobilized at the higher concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg/L. The immobilization was therefore considered to be a physical rather than a toxic effect.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by immobility to the water flea (Daphnia magna) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute toxicity to Daphnia magna at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by immobility to the water flea (Daphnia magna) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute toxicity to Daphnia magna at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water.

Description of key information

The acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by immobility to the water flea (Daphnia magna) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute toxicity to Daphnia magna at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14 -C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%).

In a second study, the acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%), as measured by immobility to the water flea (Daphnia magna) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of this study, Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not produce acute toxicity to Daphnia magna at 1000 mg/l, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14 -C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16 -C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%) did not cause acute toxicity to the freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna at a nominal loading of 1000 mg/l. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14 -C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%).