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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Exposure related observations in humans: other data

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Administrative data

exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: reliable experimental method and documentation

Data source

Reference Type:
Biomonitoring and examinations on the kinetics of isocyanates amongst spray painters
Yu F et. al.
Bibliographic source:
Zbl Arbeitsmed 55: 23-25

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Monitoring of occupational exposure
Endpoint addressed:
other: Biomonituring
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Development of method, no guideline available

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Reference substance 001
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Unspecified (UVCB substance)
Details on test material:
HDI, oligomers (biuret type) as an ingredient of hardeners of 2-component paints. The name of the substances, the workers were exposed to, are not specified.


Details on study design:
From different working groups urine was sampled prior and after isocyanate-exposure, for instance at the end of the shift.
Samples were treated with acid, and the so released diamines (= biomarker) were converted into the corresponding amids or into the carbamates. These derivates could be quantified via GC-MS. Results were given as µg amine per gram creatinine (µg/g crea).
Exposure assessment:

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables


air concentrations: 5ppb

no data concerning HDI-biuret composition.

3 human workers

The initial half-life was identified as 1.3 -3.9 h.

Peak concentration was identified at the end of exposure (20 -31 µg/g crea).

24h after exposure no HDA can be measured in urine.


unknown air concentration

It is stated, that these workers were exposed to HDI Trimer (no data concerning source).

5 Human workers, exposition 8h,

The half life for the biomarker for HDI Trimer was determined to be 4.9 -8.6 h. The maximum concentration was achieved 5h after the end of exposure. 24h after exposure the biomarker could still be detected in urine.

The HDI isocyanurate trimer biomarker apparently has a longer half life, compared to other aliphatic diisocyanate biomarkers (biomarker of HDI monomer, HDI biuret or IPDI).

28 Spray painters:

The biomarker HDA could be detected in urine in 54% with a concentration between 0.5 to 380 µg/g crea. The mean was 63 +/-100.5 µg/g crea.

62 office workers:

only in one sample the biomarker could be detected.

14 Polishers:

36% were detected as HDA biomarker positive (concentration between 4 to 130 µg/g crea, mean: 48.6 +/-49.5 µg/g crea), corresponding to the high content of HDI/hexamethylene diamine detected in the dust of the working places (242 µg/g dust).

-> The composition of the Varnish is not given for the above cited spray painters and polishers.

It was not investigated during the study weather the route of absorption was inhalative, despite respiratory protective equipment, or dermal.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

A biomarker study of the exposure with HDI Trimer revealed a half life for the biomarker for HDI Trimer (biuret) of 1.3 - 3.9 h. The maximum concentration of the biomarker was measured at the end of exposure (5ppb). 24 h after exposure the biomarker could not be detected in urine.

Unfortunately no details on test substance composititon were indicated in the report.