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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: dermal

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Administrative data

acute toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study was conducted on structural analog and suitable for read across; Non-guideline study; use of non-standard vehicle for dosing

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
equivalent or similar to guideline
OECD Guideline 402 (Acute Dermal Toxicity)
GLP compliance:
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Phosphorodithioic acid, mixed O,O-bis(1,3-dimethylbutyl and iso-Pr) esters, zinc salts
EC Number:
EC Name:
Phosphorodithioic acid, mixed O,O-bis(1,3-dimethylbutyl and iso-Pr) esters, zinc salts
Cas Number:
Phosphorodithioic acid, mixed O,O-bis(1,3-dimethylbutyl and iso-Pr) esters, zinc salts

Test animals

Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Source:
- Age at study initiation: 6-7 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 160 to 200 g (male), 140-180 g (female)
- Fasting period before study:
- Housing: Individually in stainless steel cages
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period:

- Temperature (°C): 22 +/- 3
- Humidity (%): 30-70
- Air changes (per hr): 10
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light):


Administration / exposure

Type of coverage:
other: 10% aqueous dispersion of gum Arabic
Details on dermal exposure:
- Area of exposure: Dorsal zone
- % coverage:
- Type of wrap if used: aluminum foil fastened by a bandaid

- Washing (if done): rinsed with warm water
- Time after start of exposure: 25 hours

- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 4 ml/kg
- Concentration (if solution): 50.04 g/100mL
- Constant volume or concentration used: yes
- For solids, paste formed:

- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 4 ml/kg
- Concentration (if solution):
- Lot/batch no. (if required):
- Purity:
Duration of exposure:
25 hours
0 and 2002 mg/kg
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 males and 5 females
Control animals:
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing: 1, 7, and 14 days
- Necropsy of survivors performed: no
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight,organ weights

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
> 2 002 mg/kg bw
0 mg/kg: 0/10 dead
2002 mg/kg: 0/10 dead
Clinical signs:
other: Prostration in one animal. No other behavioral anomalies. Desquamation of the skin noted on test day 11.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Read-Across Justification for EC 270-478-5

EC 270-478-5 has not been tested for acute dermal toxicity, however experimental data from an OECD 402 study with the structurally related substance EC 283-382-8 was available and suitable for read-across.

Consistent with ECHA and OECD Guidance, read-across can be performed to fill data gaps for a substance when one or more analogues have similarity from multiple lines of evidence including structural, physical-chemical, mechanistic, toxicological and/or ecotoxicological bases (REFERENCES: 1. ECHA Chapter R.7a: Endpoint specific guidance. Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment,; 2. ECHA Practical Guide 6: How to Report Read-Across and Categories,; 3. OECD 2007. Guidance on grouping of chemicals. ENV/JM/MONO(2007)28).

The registered substance ZDDP EC 270-478-5, phosphorodithioic acid, mixed O,O-bis(2-ethylhexyl and iso-Bu) esters, zinc salts, is a member of the group of inter-related ZDDP substances of similar structure and chemical properties that have previously been assessed as a category under the HPV program. For the purposes of read-across to fill data gaps for this substance the analogue ZDDP EC 283-382-8, phosphorodithioic acid, mixed O,O-bis(1,3-dimethylbutyl and iso-Pr) esters, zinc salts, is justified for use based on its similar structure, physical chemical properties, and fate and effects profile. For some endpoints where multiple reliable analogs exist, “worst case” data is selected based on the most precautionary test result, or based on reading across from lower molecular weight to higher or from higher water solubility to lower.

The following discussion provides multiple lines of evidence justifying this read across approach:

I. Category: EC 270-478-5 substance and EC 283-382-8 analog have been demonstrated to show sufficient structural and physicochemical similarity to be included in the High Production Volume (HPV) Chemical Challenge Program under the Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) category.

II. Manufacture/Usage:  EC 270-478-5 substance and EC 283-382-8 analog are substances that are generically referred to as zinc dialkylthiophosphate (ZDDP) that are produced under similar manufacturing procedures and are intended for multifunctional use as oil additives for antioxidancy and antiwear.

III. Chemical Similarity:EC 270-478-5 substance and EC 283-382-8 analog have the general empirical formula of C#H#O4P2S4Zn and are coordination complexes of zinc metal bonded to alkyldithiophosphate ligands. ZDDP complexes exist in reversible monomeric or dimeric forms (equilibrium dependent on temperature) and a basic form. The stereochemistry of the basic form can be described as four Zn atoms arranged around a tetrahedral oxide with six alkyldithiophosphate ligands. As a group, these ZDDPs share similar alcohol ester of dithiophosphate core structures, and variations that relate to alkyl chain length and the degree of branching of the alcohol. Using Tanimoto Fingerprint (ToxMatch Version 1.06 software) to model the chemical structures of the substances and its analog showed comparable values for relevant molecular descriptors (e.g., number of H bond acceptor atoms), and gave a similarity index greater than 0.8 (values range from 0, no similarity to 1, identical). Peer reviewed literature indicates that values greater than 0.6 are significantly similar and read-across is supported.

IV. Physicochemical Properties:EC 270-478-5 substance and EC 283-382-8 analog have similar values for average molecular weight (based on the monomer structure), log Kow, water solubility, and vapor pressure; or in some instances for read-across purposes “worst case” values are selected by going from a lower to a higher molecular weight, or from a higher to a lower water solubility.

V. Biologically Active Functional Groups: The ester group is a common functional group present in each of the analogue members, and is expected to exhibit similar biological activities with little influence from the length of carbon chain. Any potential breakdown products, via physical or biological processes, are also expected to result in structurally similar chemicals. In addition, non-random patterns have been observed for the toxicological effects (e.g., available data showed low levels of acute toxicity, lack of mutagenic potential, and a trend of change in ecotoxicity potential based on molecular weight). These common behaviors and consistent trends suggest a common mechanism and mode of action thereby providing further supporting evidence for the read-across among the ZDDP members.


Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
study cannot be used for classification
Migrated information
Based on the low level of toxicity and no mortality observed at 2002 mg/kg, material is not classified for acute dermal toxicity.